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Harm Reduction, Cannabis smoking


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#1 DANZIG

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Posted 04 June 2005 - 03:20 PM

What are the major strategies to reduce the risks of cannabis smoking?


If you smoke tobacco then you are not going to damage your health further by smoking cannabis. However if you wish to reduce your smoking activities then smoking cannabis with a high THC content is sensible as you will smoke less.

Mostly cannabis is smoked together with tobacco or other dried herbs. This procedure should be avoided to minimize the inhalation of smoke from burnt plant material. Many Dutch nationals smoke joints made from pure cannabis.

Pipes are superior to cigarettes in some situations in that they easily allow the person to smoke small amounts of pure high-grade cannabis. The percentage of tars in the smoke is reduced by condensation on the pipe walls. Pipes should be cleaned frequently. Water pipes are inferior to cigarettes and should be avoided.

Always use cannabis that is free of natural contaminants and adulterants.

Tests conducted by Dr Gieringer showed that vapourisers which heat marijuana to 180-190C vaporised THC below the burning point of cellulose and other plant material also the production of polycyclic hydrocarbons was reduced. The best vaporizer delivered 10 parts of tar to one part of cannabinoids, cannabis cigarettes yielded a ratio of 13:1 (average), and water pipes an average of 27:1.

Thus, the best vaporizers achieved a performance ratio about 25% higher than the unfiltered cannabis cigarette, while water pipes were less favourable than cigarettes. The use of a filter in a cannabis cigarette was not advantageous since it not only filtered the tars, but also the cannabinoids. Indeed, the performance ratio was decreased by about 30% compared to the unfiltered cigarette.

In a new study Gieringer was able to demonstrate that combustion products were substantially reduced by using another vaporizer. The used device produced THC at a temperature of 185C while completely eliminating benzene, toluene and naphthalene. Significant amounts of benzene began to appear at temperatures of 200C, while combustion occurred around 230C or above.

Traces of THC were in evidence as low as 140C. Carbon monoxide and tars were both qualitatively reduced by the vaporizer, but were not quantificated in this study. However, a significant reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was assumed since vaporized cannabis emitted a thin gray vapor and the plant material was left with a green to greenish-brown "toasted" appearance, whereas the combusted sample produced thick smoke and turned to ash.

Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 2001
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#2 Digit

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Posted 14 December 2006 - 11:21 PM

in short...

high potency.


and pure.

Edited by Digit, 14 December 2006 - 11:21 PM.


#3 Bruntington

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Posted 15 December 2006 - 12:00 AM

pardon my ignorance but water bongs(namely the 800 ROOR variety) are worse for you than pure joints....well bugger me sideways and call me norris chunningworth....would have bet my house(if I had one) that it was the opposite :beer:

#4 skinnyshreck

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Posted 29 December 2006 - 06:25 AM

pardon my ignorance but water bongs(namely the 800 ROOR variety) are worse for you than pure joints....well bugger me sideways and call me norris chunningworth....would have bet my house(if I had one) that it was the opposite :guitar:


Me too and that is why I smoke only bongs....wow!!

I am taking the water out tonight!!! :toot:

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#5 obscure_shadow

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Posted 29 December 2006 - 06:50 AM

bongs get me wreckd faster... so i'm thinkin it's bong for me reguardless of the health risks :toot:


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#6 Yoda

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Posted 29 December 2006 - 12:13 PM

hmm and im still not convinved tbh :P, how can smoking un filterd tobbacco and cannabis, be worse for you than smoking water filterd pure cannabis! Source! methodology! Nurse!

get pure cannabis smoke, put it through water, and get more tar??? where the hell from??? what the hell???

Edited by []D [] []v[] []D, 29 December 2006 - 12:22 PM.

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-----BEGIN GEEK CODE BLOCK-----
Version: 3.1
GE/L/M/P/S/SS d--(--)>--pu s:+ a- C++ !U P L+ !E W++ !N !o K+ w+ !O !M V? PS+++(+++)>+++$ PE()>$ Y++(++)>++ PGP+(+)>+ t++ 5++ X++ R+ tv b++++ DI++++ D+++ G++ e h r- y+*
------END GEEK CODE BLOCK------

#7 eri

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Posted 29 December 2006 - 04:10 PM

I would believe pure joints are less harmful if they didn't make me cough like a bastard haha

Nothin beats an ice laden, clean, 100% glass bong :wink:

Well, a vapouriser obviously does health-wise, but as far as a balance of taste and what it does to your lungs goes....... there's no contest!

Edited by eri, 29 December 2006 - 04:11 PM.


#8 Derek23

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Posted 07 March 2007 - 11:18 AM

D [] []v[] []D' date='Dec 29 2006, 02:13 PM' post='807163']
hmm and im still not convinved tbh :wassnnme:, how can smoking un filterd tobbacco and cannabis, be worse for you than smoking water filterd pure cannabis! Source! methodology! Nurse!

get pure cannabis smoke, put it through water, and get more tar??? where the hell from??? what the hell???


Just dug this up.

I think I remember this original research from some years back, the early days of UKCIA in fact and it's in our research library somewhere, but I don't have time to look now.

The original study, which was American, compared water filtered smoke with pure grass joints - not tobacco ones and I seem to remember they came the conclusion that a pure grass spliff delivered more of a hit than a bong, smoke for smoke.

But I agree, it doesn't sound very likely, bubbling the smoke through water is going to take out a lot of the heavy fraction tars.

Add on.

I had a quick look and found this which isn't the study I had in mind, and shows water filerting to be effective

Effects of water filtration on marijuana smoke: a literature review

Nicholas V. Cozzi, Ph.D.

A drug derived from marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), formulated in sesame oil and encapsulated in soft gelatin capsules (Marinol®; Roxane), is currently available as a prescription drug for the treatment of two diseases or conditions. It is indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy, and for the AIDS wasting syndrome. The marijuana plant in smokeable form is available to ten patients in the United States for disorders such as glaucoma, spasticity, and the wasting syndrome. Each of these drug delivery systems, oral capsules and smokeable plant, has advantages and disadvantages, and each may be appropriate in particular circumstances. However, a drug delivery system that combines the rapid and reliable onset and ability to easily titrate an ingested dose (such as occurs by smoking marijuana cigarettes) with the least health risk (such as occurs by oral ingestion of capsules) would also be desirable. The use of water-filtered marijuana smoke, as produced by a water pipe, is one little-explored alternative. This article reviews some of the scientific work that has been done regarding the effects of water filtration on the composition and effects of marijuana and tobacco smoke.

While most of the research on water filtration has focused on tobacco smoke, the work with marijuana smoke has revealed that, except for their respective psychoactive components (nicotine and cannabinoids), both smokes share many common constituents and physical properties. Many of the results obtained from studies of tobacco smoke are applicable to marijuana smoke.

In the late 1970's, a group based at the University of Athens Medical School (Greece) conducted a series of chemical and pharmacological studies on marijuana and tobacco smoke.1-4 These scientists tested smoke that had been filtered through a water pipe and also tested the water itself, which contained both soluble and insoluble compounds. Chemical analysis revealed many different compounds in the smoke and in the water, as expected from the combustion of plant materials. The water did trap some THC, as well as other psychoactive compounds, however, most of the THC present in the marijuana passed through the water pipe unchanged. Pharmacological tests (in mice) revealed that some of the water-trapped marijuana compounds were responsible for producing catatonia and for suppressing spontaneous motor activity. In contrast, the water-filtered smoke itself did not affect spontaneous motor activity and did not induce catatonia, though it was richer in THC. These results indicate that water filtration removes some behaviorally active compounds in preference to others; this may be important when comparing the therapeutic effects of whole marijuana smoke to water-filtered smoke.

Research has shown that water filtration reduces both the amount of particulate matter and the number and quantity of toxic substances in the smoke that passes through it. In a 1963 study by Hoffman et al.,5 the water pipe was found to retain 90% of the phenol and 50% of the particulate matter and benzo-a-pyrene of the original tobacco smoke. In another study,6 tobacco smoke components that were passed through a water pipe showed only a minor hyperplasic reaction and no sebaceous gland destruction when they were painted onto mouse skin. (The application of substances to mouse skin to assess carcinogenic potential is a classic toxicological test; the induction of abnormal cell proliferation [hyperplasia] is a red flag.) In contrast, tobacco smoke condensate that was not water-filtered induced strong hyperplasia and complete sebaceous gland destruction when applied to mouse skin in the same concentration. Salem and Sami,7 also using the mouse skin test, showed that there was a significant reduction of carcinogenic potential in water-filtered smoke compared to the water remaining in the pipe i.e., the water-trapped material was more carcinogenic than the smoke that passed through it. Indeed, when analyzed by thin layer chromatography, two carcinogenic agents were identified in the water itself, while only one was identified in the water filtered smoke. Therefore, water filtration removes at least two known carcinogens that would normally be found in the smoke.

Recently, Dr. Gary Huber at the University of Texas and colleagues from Harvard's School of Public Health conducted a cellular toxicity study of marijuana and tobacco smoke.8 This research group showed that passing marijuana or tobacco smoke through water, or even exposing the smoke to a wetted surface of about 48 square inches, effectively removed substances (acrolein and acetaldehyde) which are toxic to alveolar macrophages. Alveolar macrophages are one of the major defense cells of the lung and are an important component of the immune system. When the macrophages were exposed to smoke that was not water filtered, there was a marked impairment of their capacity to kill bacteria. When the smoke was water-filtered, however, there was no reduction in the bactericidal ability of the macrophages, suggesting that marijuana smoke that has been passed through sufficient water will have less impact on the immune system than marijuana smoke that has not been water-filtered. This intriguing finding would be of particular importance when treating patients with the AIDS wasting syndrome.

The laboratory results discussed above parallel what is known from studying human tobacco-smoking populations. Thus, there is substantial epidemiological evidence that among tobacco smokers, those who smoke through a water pipe have a much lower incidence of carcinoma than those who smoke cigarettes or smoke a "regular" pipe or cigars.6,7,9,10

In summary, it appears that water filtration can be effective in removing components from marijuana smoke that are known toxicants, while allowing the THC to pass through relatively intact. The effectiveness of toxicant removal is related to the smoke's water contact area. Specially designed water pipes, incorporating particulate filters and gas dispersion frits would likely be most effective in this regard; the gas dispersion frit serves to break up the smoke into very fine bubbles, thereby increasing its water contact area. While individuals vary greatly in their smoking technique, state of health, dosing regimen, and so on, it seems that many patients could benefit from the use of water pipes to deliver THC. This would allow patients to titrate their dose easily while reducing the health hazard associated with smoke.

REFERENCES
1) Spronck, H.J.W.; Salemink, C.A.; Alikaridis,F.; Papadakis,D. Pyrolysis of cannabinoids: a model experiment in the study of cannabis smoking. Bulletin on Narcotics, 30, 55-59 (1978)

2) Alikaridis,Ph.; Michael,C.M.; Papadakis,D.P.; Kephalas, T.A.; Kiburis,J. Scientific Research on Cannabis. No. 55. Chemical aspects of cannabis smoke produced through water pipes. United Nations Secretariat ST/SOA/SER.S/55, GE. 77-7339, 1-9 (17 June 1977)

3) Savaki,H.E.; Cunha,J.; Carlini,E.A.; Kephalas, T.A. Pharmacological activity of three fractions obtained by smoking cannabis through a water pipe. Bulletin on Narcotics, 28, 49-56 (1976)

4) Lazaratou,H.; Moschovakis,A.; Armagandis,A.; Kapsambelis, V.; Kiburis,J.; Kephalas, T.A. The pharmacological effect of fractions obtained by smoking cannabis through a water pipe. II. A second fractionation step. Experientia, 36, 1407-1408 (1980)

5) Hoffman, D.; Rathkamp, G.; Wynder, E.L. Comparison of the yields of several selected components in the smoke from different tobacco products. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 31, 627-635 (1963)

6) Salem, E.S. Studies on special smoking patterns in Egypt. 5th World Conference on Smoking and Health, Winnipeg, Canada. July 10-15, 1983. Eds: Bola, P; Wright, F.E.

7) Salem, E.S.; Sami, A. Studies on pulmonary manifestations of goza smokers. Chest, 65, 599 (1974)

8) Huber, G.L.; First, M.W.; Grubner, O. Marijuana and tobacco smoke gas-phase cytotoxins. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, 40, 629-636 (1991)

9) Lubin,J.H.; Li, J.-Y.; Xuan, X.-Z.; Cai,S.K.; Luo, Q.-S.; Yang, L.-F.; Wang, J.-Z.; Yang,L.; Blot, W.J. Risk of lung cancer among cigarette and pipe smokers in Southern China. International Journal of Cancer, 51, 390-395 (1992)

10) Srivastava, Y.C. Oral Leukoplakia. International Surgery, 58, 614-618 (1973)


Acknowledgement:
This study was supported by a grant from MAPS
2105 Robinson Avenue
Sarasota FL 34232
email: st.maps@cybernetics.net (Sylvia Thyssen, Network Coordinator)

Copyright 1995 by Nicholas V. Cozzi, Ph.D. This document may be freely copied and distributed, subject to the following limitations: 1) This document must be copied in its entirety, without modifications; 2) This document may NOT be copied for commercial purposes.


Derek

Edited by Derek23, 07 March 2007 - 11:27 AM.

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#9 pipehippy

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Posted 02 March 2008 - 09:47 PM

@Danzig - Are you sure that ratio is correct for tar, ie 10:1 vape and 13:1 cigs? Maybe I'm reading it incorrectly.. but it seems a little strange as there is never any visible tar when I clean my vape.

Answered my own question, old research, lots of problems as to validity - used water, higher cbd to thc percentage etc etc, also vapes have come a looong way since :blub:

Edited by pipehippy, 02 March 2008 - 09:58 PM.


#10 rushton69

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Posted 29 May 2008 - 10:38 AM

I smoke a bong without water in it and have done for many years, much prefer the taste and high compared to water being in there, plus I always seem to get a more chesty unmoveable cough if I smoke with water so perhaps there is some truth in it, who knows...
Plus the bong gets so messy when you smoke it with water, redeye pipe cleaner is a god send though! ;)
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#11 clapham

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Posted 03 June 2008 - 12:32 PM

One or two additional suggestions.

1] Smoke tobbacco and die. Pure weed or hash is always better. There are no healthy herbal or other mixes for cannabis.

2] If smoking grass has any ill effects on your lungs and windpipe stop and learn how to drink it instead, you don't want to to end up not being able to breathe. Former tobbacco smokers are advised not to smoke as it will almost certainly build on existing damage (as in my case).

2] Make sure you clean your grass of all sticks and seeds, it is well worth the time and less stress on the lungs.

3] If smoking a pipe then smoke through a piece of wet cloth on the mouthpiece for extra protection from tar.

4] Drink tea, coffee or hot choc while smoking and take a sip with every inhalation, this soothes the throat and helps to protect it.

5] Don't smoke Rasta stylee, (massive puffs of smoke) or you will get holes in your lungs. No need for joints the size of the M4, smaller the amount the better however you smoke it.

Any more to add? :spliff:

#12 Randalizer

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Posted 03 June 2008 - 06:20 PM

don't forget to look both ways when crossing a street? :woot:

#13 Mr Mullen

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Posted 03 June 2008 - 08:44 PM

5] Don't smoke Rasta stylee, (massive puffs of smoke) or you will get holes in your lungs.


Hello,

What causes the holes in your lungs?, got a mate who keeps telling me that smoking my pure joints does this to me.

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#14 Bish

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Posted 03 June 2008 - 08:51 PM

One or two additional suggestions.

1] Smoke tobbacco and die. Pure weed or hash is always better. There are no healthy herbal or other mixes for cannabis.

2] If smoking grass has any ill effects on your lungs and windpipe stop and learn how to drink it instead, you don't want to to end up not being able to breathe. Former tobbacco smokers are advised not to smoke as it will almost certainly build on existing damage (as in my case).

2] Make sure you clean your grass of all sticks and seeds, it is well worth the time and less stress on the lungs.

3] If smoking a pipe then smoke through a piece of wet cloth on the mouthpiece for extra protection from tar.

4] Drink tea, coffee or hot choc while smoking and take a sip with every inhalation, this soothes the throat and helps to protect it.

5] Don't smoke Rasta stylee, (massive puffs of smoke) or you will get holes in your lungs. No need for joints the size of the M4, smaller the amount the better however you smoke it.

Any more to add? :rofl:


I reckon you've got it all covered, nowt to add :rofl:

:rofl:

#15 niall

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Posted 29 September 2008 - 04:36 PM

hi all, i was reading a study about the effects of smoking. the tar was a factor but the main stem of this study was more focused on the pesticides used on the tobacco plant when growing. plutonium is prescent in the smoke which causes hot spots in the lung so smoke outside if possible and avoid the tobacco.


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