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namkha

CBD - Cannabidiol: A Summary of the Research

83 posts in this topic

What Mriko says makes me think of a small (outdoor) plant (nectar haze from nectar seeds) I grew a few years back that was totally racy and unpleasant when I smoked it sometime after harvest. I smoked it again like a year later and the effect was calm and peacefull. I still have a little of it and estimate 2 % amber trichomes. So barely ripe according to paul lawrenson's standards.

Maybe the curing process has a lot to do with having better effects which leads me to import sativas which are cured well I guess but maybe not ripe at all..

Actually, maybe ripening on the plant and curing after harvest have an overlap in the chemical processes taking place.

Just speculating.

Edited by StoneLocust

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You have to look in the aging of the terpenes like Patchouli has a more calmy effect while Bergamot oil lifts you up.Fresh dried Thai can have a more citrus aroma in the beginning while after curing the aroma changes in a more minty sandalwood, bit incense like aroma.

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basically the whole Paul Lawrenson article is wrong and misleading...

for a sound explanation of the things people are discussing in the last couple of posts, see this pinned thread

Synergistic Effects of Terpenoids (Essential Oils) & Cannabinoids

https://www.uk420.com/boards/index.php?showtopic=284882

interaction with THC gives different highs/stones

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Marijuana And Cancer: Scientists Find Cannabis Compound Stops Metastasis In Aggressive Cancers

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/19/marijuana-and-cancer_n_1898208.html

09/19/2012

A pair of scientists at California Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco has found that a compound derived from marijuana could stop metastasis in many kinds of aggressive cancer, potentially altering the fatality of the disease forever.

"It took us about 20 years of research to figure this out, but we are very excited," said Pierre Desprez, one of the scientists behind the discovery, to The Huffington Post. "We want to get started with trials as soon as possible."

The Daily Beast first reported on the finding, which has already undergone both laboratory and animal testing, and is awaiting permission for clinical trials in humans.

Desprez, a molecular biologist, spent decades studying ID-1, the gene that causes cancer to spread. Meanwhile, fellow researcher Sean McAllister was studying the effects of Cannabidiol, or CBD, a non-toxic, non-psychoactive chemical compound found in the cannabis plant. Finally, the pair collaborated, combining CBD and cells containing high levels of ID-1 in a petri dish.

"What we found was that his Cannabidiol could essentially 'turn off' the ID-1," Desprez told HuffPost. The cells stopped spreading and returned to normal.

"We likely would not have found this on our own," he added. "That's why collaboration is so essential to scientific discovery."

Desprez and McAllister first published a paper about the finding in 2007. Since then, their team has found that CBD works both in the lab and in animals. And now, they've found even more good news.

"We started by researching breast cancer," said Desprez. "But now we've found that Cannabidiol works with many kinds of aggressive cancers--brain, prostate--any kind in which these high levels of ID-1 are present."

Desprez hopes that clinical trials will begin immediately.

"We've found no toxicity in the animals we've tested, and Cannabidiol is already used in humans for a variety of other ailments," he said. Indeed, the compound is used to relieve anxiety and nausea, and, since it is non-psychoactive, does not cause the "high" associated with THC.

While marijuana advocates will surely praise the discovery, Desprez explained that it's not so easy as just lighting up.

"We used injections in the animal testing and are also testing pills," he said. "But you could never get enough Cannabidiol for it to be effective just from smoking."

Furthermore, the team has started synthesizing the compound in the lab instead of using the plant in an effort to make it more potent.

"It's a common practice," explained Desprez. "But hopefully it will also keep us clear of any obstacles while seeking approval."

Marijuana Fights Cancer and Helps Manage Side Effects, Researchers Find

http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/09/06/marijuana-fights-cancer-and-helps-manage-side-effects-researchers-find.html

Mounting evidence shows ‘cannabinoids’ in marijuana slow cancer growth, inhibit formation of new blood cells that feed a tumor, and help manage pain, fatigue, nausea, and other side effects.

Sep 6, 2012 4:45 AM EDT

Cristina Sanchez, a young biologist at Complutense University in Madrid, was studying cell metabolism when she noticed something peculiar. She had been screening brain cancer cells because they grow faster than normal cell lines and thus are useful for research purposes. But the cancer cells died each time they were exposed to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive ingredient of marijuana.

Instead of gaining insight into how cells function, Sanchez had stumbled upon the anti-cancer properties of THC. In 1998, she reported in a European biochemistry journal that THC “induces apoptosis [cell death] in C6 glioma cells,” an aggressive form of brain cancer.

Subsequent peer-reviewed studies in several countries would show that THC and other marijuana-derived compounds, known as “cannabinoids,” are effective not only for cancer-symptom management (nausea, pain, loss of appetite, fatigue), they also confer a direct antitumoral effect.

A team of Spanish scientists led by Manuel Guzman conducted the first clinical trial assessing the antitumoral action of THC on human beings. Guzman administered pure THC via a catheter into the tumors of nine hospitalized patients with glioblastoma, who had failed to respond to standard brain-cancer therapies. The results were published in 2006 in the British Journal of Pharmacology: THC treatment was associated with significantly reduced tumor cell proliferation in every test subject.

Around the same time, Harvard University scientists reported that THC slows tumor growth in common lung cancer and “significantly reduces the ability of the cancer to spread.” What’s more, like a heat-seeking missile, THC selectively targets and destroys tumor cells while leaving healthy cells unscathed. Conventional chemotherapy drugs, by contrast, are highly toxic; they indiscriminately damage the brain and body.

There is mounting evidence, according to a report in Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, that cannabinoids “represent a new class of anticancer drugs that retard cancer growth, inhibit angiogenesis [the formation of new blood cells that feed a tumor] and the metastatic spreading of cancer cells.”

Dr. Sean McAllister, a scientist at the Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco, has been studying cannabinoid compounds for 10 years in a quest to develop new therapeutic interventions for various cancers. Backed by grants from the National Institute of Health (and with a license from the DEA), McAllister discovered that cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive component of the marijuana plant, is a potent inhibitor of breast cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and tumor growth.

In 2007, McAllister published a detailed account of how cannabidiol kills breast cancer cells and destroys malignant tumors by switching off expression of the ID-1 gene, a protein that appears to play a major role as a cancer cell conductor.

The ID-1 gene is active during human embryonic development, after which it turns off and stays off. But in breast cancer and several other types of metastatic cancer, the ID-1 gene becomes active again, causing malignant cells to invade and metastasize. “Dozens of aggressive cancers express this gene,” explains McAllister. He postulates that CBD, by virtue of its ability to silence ID-1 expression, could be a breakthrough anti-cancer medication.

“Cannabidiol offers hope of a non-toxic therapy that could treat aggressive forms of cancer without any of the painful side effects of chemotherapy,” says McAllister, who is seeking support to conduct clinical trials with the marijuana compound on breast cancer patients.

McAllister’s lab also is analyzing how CBD works in combination with first-line chemotherapy agents. His research shows that cannabidiol, a potent antitumoral compound in its own right, acts synergistically with various anti-cancer pharmaceuticals, enhancing their impact while cutting the toxic dosage necessary for maximum effect.

Breast cancer cells killed by CBD on right compared to untreated breast cancer cells on left. (Courtesy Pacific Medical Center)

“Cannabidiol offers hope of a non-toxic therapy that could treat aggressive forms of cancer without any of the painful side effects of chemotherapy.

Investigators at St. George’s University in London observed a similar pattern with THC, which magnified the effectiveness of conventional antileukemia therapies in preclinical studies. THC and cannabidiol both induce apoptosis in leukemic cell lines.

At the annual summer conference of the International Cannabinoid Research Society, held this year in Freiburg, Germany, 300 scientists from around the world discussed their latest findings, which are pointing the way toward novel treatment strategies for cancer and other degenerative diseases. Italian investigators described CBD as “the most efficacious inducer of apoptosis” in prostate cancer. Ditto for cannabidiol and colon cancer, according to British researchers at Lancaster University.

Within the medical science community, the discovery that cannabinoids have anti-tumoral properties is increasingly recognized as a seminal advancement in cancer therapeutics.

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lots of very useful info here from the science section of the Project CBD website

http://projectcbd.org/

12/11/10 SCC HEARS McALLISTER ON CANCER RESEARCH

Barriers between pro-Cannabis MDs and the medical establishment are falling. Doctors who monitor cannabis use by patients were bursting with questions yesterday during a talk by Sean McAllister, PhD, who has been studying the anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids in the laboratory (on a grant from NIH and with a license from the DEA). The occasion was the winter meeting of the Society of Cannabis Clinicians. "That's a very good question," McAllister would say, and provide the answer, and tie it back into his main thread.

Researcher Jahan Marcu at Temple University wrote up a recent presentation by McAllister, covering the same ground. Here's Jahan's account:

Dr. McAllister and colleagues at the California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute have discovered that CBD (Cannabidiol) is a very potent inhibitor of breast cancer. They have reported findings on the cumulative effect of CBD and THC in blocking proliferation of brain-cancer cells, and on CBD's mechanism of action in blocking breast-cancer metastasis.

A new study by McAllister et al in the Journal of Breast Cancer Research and Treatment is an in-depth look at how CBD kills breast cancer cells in an animal model. CBD affects a protein called ID-1, which appears to be a major conductor of cancer cells. ID-1 is thus is an excellent target for a cancer treatment.

When cancer spreads it can eat through tissue (the process is called "metastasis"). CBD appears to inhibit the cells' aggressive behavior. The image above is from an experiment by McAllister testing how CBD can stop the invasion of cancer cells. The cancer cells are placed on a gel which contain small holes. The cells are dosed with a drug and after a few days you can count the number of cells that have made it through. This simulates what a tumor does as it eats its way through human tissues. The little black triangles are the cells. You can see that only a half-dozen or so made it through the gel when dosed with CBD (on the right). The control on the left shows that in the absence of CBD, the cancer cells easily chew through the gel.

McAllister and colleagues at California Pacific have posted a video showing cannabinoids selectively killing cancer cells.

The therapeutic potential of CBD or a synthetic version thereof is, of course, of interest to pharmaceutical companies. McAllister mentioned that work may soon start on a CBD and breast cancer clinical trial with synthetic cannabidiol provided by a British company, STI pharmaceuticals.

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CBD MAY COUNTER THE MUNCHIES

The title of a paper published in Neuropsychopharmacology earlier this year —"Cannabidiol Attenuates the Appetitive Effects of Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Humans Smoking Their Chosen Cannabis"— suggests to us that CBD-rich Cannabis might work as an appetite suppressant. The authors, Celia Morgan and colleagues from University College London, tested 94 subjects on two occasions. The subjects smoked their own Cannabis and "while acutely under the influence" were offered more Cannabis, other drugs, and food. Morgan et al measured the eagerness with which the subjects responded to the offerings, and found that it correlated inversely with the CBD-to-THC ratio of the Cannabis the subjects were smoking. In other words, the higher the proportion of CBD they had ingested, the less desirous they became of more drugs and food.

In the great Prohibitionist tradition, Morgan et al concluded that "CBD has potential as a treatment for Cannabis dependence" and "possibly… for other addictive disorders."

Here's the abstract: "Worldwide Cannabis dependence is increasing, as is the concentration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in street Cannabis. At the same time, the concentration of the second most abundant cannabinoid in street Cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), is decreasing. These two cannabinoids have opposing effects both pharmacologically and behaviorally when administered in the laboratory. No research has yet examined how the ratio of these constituents impacts on the appetitive/reinforcing effects of Cannabis in humans. A total of 94 Cannabis users were tested 7 days apart, once while non-intoxicated and once while acutely under the influence of their own chosen smoked Cannabis on dependence-related measures. Using an unprecedented methodology, a sample of Cannabis (as well as saliva) was collected from each user and analyzed for levels of cannabinoids. On the basis of CBD : THC ratios in the Cannabis, individuals from the top and bottom tertiles were directly compared on indices of the reinforcing effects of drugs, explicit liking, and implicit attentional bias to drug stimuli. When intoxicated, smokers of high CBD : THC strains showed reduced attentional bias to drug and food stimuli compared with smokers of low CBD : THC. Those smoking higher CBD : THC strains also showed lower self-rated liking of Cannabis stimuli on both test days. Our findings suggest that CBD has potential as a treatment for Cannabis dependence. The acute modulation of the incentive salience of drug cues by CBD may possibly generalize to a treatment for other addictive disorders."

We'll look into the appetite-suppressant angle here at Project CBD…In animal studies another compound in the Cannabis plant, THC-V, has been found to suppress food cravings.

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CBD "ALERTING" EXCEPT IN HIGH DOSES

Nancy Sajben, MD, has shared a note from a patient about a CBD-rich strain purchased at Harborside Health Center (after he couldn’t find any CBD-rich Cannabis in Southern California).

The patient wrote: “Incredible Romulan, with a little vaping in the oven to remove THC, proved excellent for my chronic insomnia when made into a tincture.”

Dr. Sajben wanted to know whether heating Cannabis would indeed remove THC.

Project CBD explains: “Just a few comments on the concept of increasing CBD over THC —I am afraid that this is not rational. Firstly, you can’t create CBD when it’s not there to begin with. There are a lot of crazy misconceptions floating around along the lines of raw Cannabis has more CBD; that heating turns THC into CBD; or that you can differentially favor one over the other. None of these are true. The amount of CBD in a given chemotype is genetically determined, period. Generally speaking, drug strains of Cannabis available in North America rarely have any significant amount of CBD.

“THC has a boiling point of 157 Celsius, with CBD listed as 160-180 Celsius. However, both begin to sublimate off at even lower temperatures, and commercially available vaporizers, even the Volcano, do not heat evenly enough to allow fractionation of one component over another. What your patient is doing is wasting some cannabinoids and terpenoids by preheating. To get all of them out requires more prolonged heating, or a higher temperature. When the latter is done, it favors higher molecular weight sesquiterpenoids, many of which are sedating. That would account for the hypnotic effect along with whatever residual THC is left. Contrary to popular belief, CBD is actually alerting, except at exceptionally high doses.

References: “A Tale of Two Cannabinoids: The Therapeutic Rationale for Combining Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol” by Ethan Russo and Geoffrey W. Guy, and “Effect of D-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Nocturnal Sleep and Early-Morning Behavior in Young Adults" by Anthony N. Nicholson, Claire Turner, Barbara M. Stone and Philip J. Robson

Top

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AN EXCHANGE re: DOSING QUESTION

From a reader: Conventional meds have not prevented our son from having seizures. He has been given a remarkable Cannabis concentrate —17% THC, 16% CBD— and wants to make cookies. His plan —which his neurologist is aware of— is to take a single-dose cookie when he wakes up and every four hours thereafter until he goes to bed, to maintain roughly even cannabinoid levels. He wants to find the dose at which he can be functional and seizure-free. He will titrate, of course, but what should the starting point be —how many miligrams of THC and CBD should that cookie contain?

Reply from Janet Weiss, MD: Two options: If using the dronabinol dosing model as a starting point (30-90 mg), then an ingested dose would be 15 mg per cookie, consuming 6 cookies per day. Assumes that 50% of the cannabinoid content is destroyed in cooking or otherwise is not bioavailable, I would start with a recipe that results in 30 mg of cannabinoids per cookie in the batter. If using the Sativex dosing model (2.7 mg THC/2.5 mg CBD) per spray, 5-12 sprays/day (which assumes no destruction from cooking and 80% mucosal bioavailability), then 13.9 mg. is a dose. Since GI bioavailability is less than mucosal, I again come up with an ingested dose of 15 mg per cookie. (And suggest starting with 30 mg. cannabinoids per cookie in the batter). That's my 2 cents.

ABOUT DOSING

Questions were put to a source familiar with both HortaPharm’s and GW Pharmaceuticals’ research into CBD-rich cannabis. He generalized:

“At low doses, equal amounts of CBD will blunt the peak effect of THC somewhat, but not eliminate it by any means. If given first, CBD can block the high of THC. At higher doses, the effects of THC overwhelm those of CBD, and one can still become extremely high.”

There were two very interesting presentations at the 2010 ICRS conference in Lund, Sweden, relevant to dosing questions.

• Yosef Sarne, an Israeli scientist, reported that ultra-low doses of THC had long-lasting effects “on cognitive functioning in mice.” Homeopathy!

• Jacqueline Blankman from the Scripps Institute in San Diego reported on a powerful new compound that inhibits MAGL, the main enzyme that breaks down 2-AG. But it did this so effectively that 2-AG levels skyrocketed and her team observed the opposite reactions of everything they had expected –pro-inflammatory rather than anti-inflammatory, etc. At the same time, anandamide levels decrease when 2-AG levels are high (and vice versa), thereby accentuating the biphasic experience.

So dosage is everything, to paraphrase Paracelsus.

HOW DOES CBD COUNTER ANXIETY?

A new study by Jose A. S. Crippa and a team of Brazilian investigators confirms that symptoms of Social Anxiety Disorder can be reduced by treatment with CBD —and identifies areas of the brain involved in the process. The paper by Crippa et al, "Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report," was published online Sept. 9 in the Journal of Psychopharmacology. Ten men with severe Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), ages 20 to 33, participated in the study, which was conducted at the University of Sao Paulo. Crystalline CBD from THC Pharm in Frankfurt was used. Prior to undergoing a neuroimaging procedure to measure blood flow in the brain, the subjects were given either 400 mg of CBD dissolved in corn oil and packed in a gel cap, or a placebo gel cap. A week later they were given the alternative treatment. The investigators assumed that the neuroimaging —Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), which involves insertion of an intravenous tube and observation by a technician deploying a high-tech apparatus— was in itself an anxiety-producing event. Subjects recorded their anxiety levels before, during, and after the neuroimaging by means of a "Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS)." The researchers were able to correlate these subjective reports with blood-flow activity measured in the brain. "CBD was associated with significantly decreased anxiety," they concluded. They observed reduced radioactive tracer intake in the left parahippocampal gyrus, the hippocampus, and the inferior temporal gyrus. They saw increased uptake in the right posterior cingulated gyrus. "These results suggest that CBD reduces anxiety in SAD and that this is related to its effects on activity in limbic and paralimbic brain areas," according to Crippa. If CBD-rich Cannabis exerts similar effects, Crippa's findings suggest that it can be useful in decreasing anxiety.

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Cheers for sharing all this information, as soon as I get bit of time, I have to read through all of this :yep:

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Hi, I just joined this forum and I've got some nice CBD links to share!

Cannabidiol in Humans—The Quest for Therapeutic Targets

www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/5/5/529/pdf

Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent

http://petition.iowamedicalmarijuana.org/2012/Bergamaschi_2011.pdf

:)

Edited by helpful hemp
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hi Helpful Hemp,

thanks for dropping in

---

here's Jeff Ditchfield hunting for CBD in Spain

Edited by namkha
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Marijuana Derivative May Offer Hope in Cocaine Addiction

http://healthland.time.com/2011/07/26/marijuana-derivative-may-offer-hope-in-cocaine-addiction/

By Maia SzalavitzJuly 26, 2011Add a Comment

A new study in mice has found that activating a receptor affected by marijuana can dramatically reduce cocaine consumption. The research suggests that new anti-addiction drugs might be developed using synthetic versions of cannabidiol (CBD), the marijuana component that activates the receptor—or even by using the purified natural compound itself.

Researchers formerly believed that the receptor, known as CB2, was not found in the brain and that therefore CBD had no psychoactive effects. But a growing body of research suggests otherwise. After THC, CBD is the second most prevalent active compound in marijuana.

The study found that JWH133, a synthetic drug that activates the CB2 receptor, reduced intravenous cocaine administration in mice by 50-60%.

“It’s a very significant reduction,” says Zheng-Xiong Xi, the lead author of the study and a researcher at the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

JWH133 comes with some other features that make it an attractive candidate as a potential anti-addiction treatment. It does not seem to produce either a high or a negative experience, which is critical if it is to become a useful and politically acceptable anti-addiction option. While mice given drugs like cocaine or heroin will spend more time in the place where they got high (apparently hoping for more), mice didn’t develop such a “place preference” when given JWH133. Nor did they avoid the spot where they’d been given it, which happens when mice are given drugs they find unpleasant.

“It’s extremely exciting,” says Antonello Bonci, scientific director for intramural research at the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Ethnographic research by Ric Curtis, chair of anthropology at John Jay College in New York suggests that, as is often the case, addicts may have been ahead of the researchers in discovering this potential property of marijuana. National surveys found that as crack use declined in the early 1990′s, marijuana use rose— and Curtis found that many crack users reported deliberately substituting marijuana for crack, seeking a cheaper and less disruptive high.

Could successful replacement of crack with marijuana be related to CBD and its activation of CB2 receptors? “That’s a very tough question,” says Xi, adding that while we don’t really know, he suspects that THC may be more involved. “That sounds more like substitution, using a less addictive drug to replace a more addictive drug,” he says.

The next step to is to figure out what are the side effects of this, to figure out what could limit [development],” says Bonci. Interestingly, other studies suggest that JWH133—and therefore, potentially, CBD—may prevent the development of the brain plaques associated with Alzheimer’s disease. It also seems to have antipsychotic effects.

All of which merely adds to the increasingly absurd controversy over medical uses of marijuana.

Fighting Drug Addiction With Marijuana

http://abcnews.go.com/ABC_Univision/News/fighting-drug-addiction-marijuana/story?id=18851710#.UVxPA4pwZdj

The mayor's office in Bogota is considering a pilot program that would look to transition drug addicts from hard drugs to marijuana.

By TED HESSON (@tedhesson)

April 1, 2013

For decades, Colombia has been searching for ways to treat people who are addicted to basuco, the nation's version of crack cocaine.

Now, the country's capital, Bogota, is considering a new approach: transition users to marijuana.

See Also:Does a Catch-22 Keep Pot Labeled a Dangerous Drug?

BBC Mundo reports that the city is interested in trying a pilot program to see if pot helps mitigate the symptoms of withdrawal that basuco users experience. The goal is to minimize the social and health risks that accompany the drug.

Basuco isn't the same as crack, but it's an apt comparison. Like crack, it's smokable and more common among a poorer segment of society.

When it comes to quality, basuco is some of the least pure cocaine out there. The base of the drug is an intermediary product that you get if you're turning coca leaves into cocaine, and it can contain residue from the solvents used in that process, including kerosene. Dealers add things like ash and crushed bricks to give it bulk. For less than a dollar, you can get a short but powerful high.

One expert in Bogota estimates that the city has at least 7,000 "problem users," which means they might take up to 15-20 hits a day, according to BBC Mundo.

To confront the issue, the city is planning to test out "controlled consumption centers," where addicts of hard drugs will be able to consume in a safer environment, with the goal of kicking the habit.

Julián Quintero, from the Bogota-based non-profit organization Acción Técnica Social, which works on drug policy, told BBC Mundo how such centers will work:

"The first thing you do is to start to reduce the dose. After that, you begin to change the way that it's administered: if you were injecting heroin, you move to smoking heroin; after smoking heroin, you move to combining it with cannabis; after that, you're staying with the cannabis," he said. "What you're looking for is for the person to reach a point where they can stabilize the consumption and that the consumption doesn't prevent them from being functional."

Is anyone in the U.S. trying this kind of approach to hard drugs?

No, according to Amanda Reiman, a policy manager with the Drug Policy Alliance, a group that favors alternatives to current drug laws.

"Unfortunately, universities rely on grants from the federal government for research, so most of what they do is what the feds want done," she said in an email. "As you can probably guess, the feds are not too interested in beneficial uses for marijuana, and even less interested in how to help people who are addicted to substances, so most of the research in this area occurs outside the U.S. or through private funding."

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High on Health: CBD in the Food Supply

http://www.realitysandwich.com/high_health_cbd_food_supply

Allan Badiner

Endocannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds found within the human body. They've been there for 600,000 years or more, but we've only just noticed it! One of the remarkable things about endocannabinoids is their striking similarity to the active ingredients of cannabis called phyto-cannabinoids. In fact, it was the effort by scientists to understand the exact mechanism by which cannabis works in the body that led to the discovery of the Endocannabinoid System little more than a decade ago.

The science of endocannabinoid medicine has progressed to a dizzying degree in the past few years. There is wider awareness that the 'endocannabinoid system' is the largest neurotransmitter system in the human body, regulating relaxation, eating, sleeping, memory, and, as noted by the Italian scientist Vincenzo Di Marzo, even our immune system.

Cannabinoids promote homeostasis, the maintenance of a stable internal environment despite external fluctuations, at every level of biological life, from the sub-cellular, to the organism. For example, endocannabinoids are now understood as the source of the runner's high. The endocannabinoids naturally found in human breast milk, which are vital for proper human development, have virtually identical effects as cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. Amazingly, the mechanism at work after smoking or eating cannabis, when adults get the "munchies, is essentially the same as what causes breastfeeding babies to seek protein-rich milk.

Universally accepted following its discovery in 1995, the endocannabinoid system asserts it power to heal and balance the other systems of the body by turning on or off the expression of genes. Cannabinoids hold the key that unlocks receptor sites throughout the brain and immune system triggering potent healing and pain-killing effects.

The endocannabinoid anandamide, (Ananda = bliss in Sanskrit + amide = chemical type) a naturally neurotransmitting lipid compound made by all mammals, is basically a self-manufactured "natural THC" circulating within. Anandamide and THC act through the cannabinoid receptors and have similar effects on pain, appetite, and memory, etc.

There are two types of cannabinoid receptors in the body -- the CB1 receptors found primarily in the brain and the central nervous system, and the CB2 receptors that are distributed but primarily found in the immune system. These receptors respond to cannabinoids, whether they be from breast milk, or from a cannabis plant.

Aside from the cannabinoids produced by the body and those found in cannabis, there are numerous substances that interact with the endocannabinoid system, such as cacao, black pepper, echinacea, tumeric and even carrots. But it is the Cannabis plant that produces the most powerful cannabinoids mimicing most closely those produced by the body. No downsides, no side-effects, no drug interaction issues, and so far, no giving up your hard earned funds to big pharma.

Make no mistake, I'm not referring to THC, of which Americans smoke more of per person than any other people on Earth, but rather the "other," non-psychoactive cannabinoid called Cannabidiol (CBD), a prominent molecular component of the cannabis plant. While CBD does not bind to either the CB1 or CB2 cannabinoid receptors directly, it does stimulate endogenous cannabinoid activity by suppressing an enzyme that breaks down anandamide. CBD is also a counterbalance to the action of THC at the CB1 receptor, mitigating or muting the psychoactive effects of THC. Weed enthusiasts would be wise to keep some CBD on hand for when things get... out of hand.

If just 10% of what research doctors are now saying about CBD is true, then this is a discovery with significance similar in medical impact to the discovery of antibiotics. Myriad serious scientific peer-reviewed studies in Europe have pointed to CBD as having almost unprecedented healing power over an extraordinary variety of pathologies. Even the stodgy National Cancer Institute has referenced this on their website.

Surprisingly, there is still little awareness of this outside of the medical research community. Surely an unknown plant newly found in a remote rainforest with the same medical profile would be heralded as a miraculous cure. But in the last half-century, this particular plant has been better known as an intoxicant than a medicine.

The stigma that obscures wider awareness of its beneficial nature has been carefully cultivated. For decades, Hearst newspapers bombarded Americans with images of Mexicans and African Americans led into vice and violence by the evil weed. In the public mind, cannabis was transformed from an obscure ingredient in patented medicines with pharmacy sales rivaling aspirin, to an intoxicant the use of which would lead inevitably to decline and debauchery.

In a spectacular confluence of politics, racism, corporate greed, and political corruption, the federal government managed to outlaw cannabis for all purposes in 1937, with medical research becoming virtually impossible in the U.S.

Now, in California and around the country, research doctors are peer-reviewing the recent explosion of clinical studies from abroad, as well as conducting their own pre-clinical research without humans. Persuasive evidence abounds that CBD is effective in easing symptoms as well as reversing of a wide range of difficult-to-control conditions, including: rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, alcoholism, PTSD, epilepsy, antibiotic-resistant infections, neurological disorders, and muscular dystrophy.

CBD has no side effects and becomes very effective as an anti-psychotic when given in larger doses. With more antioxidant potency than either vitamin C or E, CBD has consistently demonstrated neuroprotective effects, and its anti-cancer potential is, by all accounts, enormous. Sean McAllister, PhD at California Pacific Medical Center said "CBD could spell the end of breast cancer," and claims it could render chemotherapy and radiation a distant 2nd and 3rd options for cancer patients.

Don Abrams M.D. at UCSF says the studies point to "a remarkable ability of CBD to arrest cancer cell division, cell migration, metastasis, and invasiveness." The vast impact of the endocannabinoid system on human health explains and validates anecdotal reports of cannabis used effectively for a wide range of health conditions. Studies on the efficacy of CBD treatment are already driving the design and development of precision targeted single-molecule medicines. Indeed, we are hard-wired for cannabinoids.

The US government may not admit the medical efficacy of cannabis, but the global pharmaceutical industry has been researching it for many years. Some 350 scientists from drug-company labs including Merck, Pfizer, Eli Lilly, Bristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, and Allergan (maker of Botox and silicone breast implants) regularly attend meetings of the International Cannabinoid Research Society. They are all trying to develop synthetic drugs that confer some of the health benefits of cannabis without the psychoactivity. "It's a foregone conclusion," says Julie London, M.D.,"that the next decade will see a new generation of Big Pharma medications based on cannabis."

According to Martin A. Lee, author of Smoke Signals, vitamin D combined with CBD could become "the killer public health app of the post-prohibition era." A new CBD/THC medicine for cancer pain called Sativex from the British company, GW Pharmaceuticals, is finishing the final FDA-approval process. While there is no time limit on enduring prejudice, as science reveals more about how the cannabinoid system works, the stigma associated with cannabis use is expected to fade.

CBD-enriched health foods, tinctures and oils are the next revolution in food and medicine. There is currently an explosion of entrepreneurial activity and creativity around making up for lost time with CBD. LA-based cannabis physician Allan Frankel explains that, "up until this past year, it has been impossible to help patients using CBD. Cannabis growers were focused on the stoniest weed," hence, CBD which is non-psychoactive, was nearly lost. Now, more CBD rich strains are turning up, in part because there are laboratories that can accurately assess how much of which cannabinoid is present and check for mold and pesticides.

We are still in the early stages of understanding the synergistic effects of all the cannabinoids, not to mention the terpenoids--the sticky aromatic terpenes that give cannabis its characteristic smell. Research, as well as results in the field, shows that the presence of some THC and other cannabinoids in smaller amounts potentate the healing effects of CBD. The combined effects of the cannabinoids, terpenes and perhaps another 200 other molecules all working together and carefully balanced in nature is what Dr. Ethan Russo calls an "Entourage Effect".

The burgeoning edible cannabis industry until recently was focused on making food items so radically THC dominant that you could easily become catatonic 3 hours after ingestion. Anecdotal evidence suggests while most people enjoy these powerful treats, many people have had challenging experiences, replete with anxiety, panic, and functional psychosis.

Fortunately, for seekers of good health or for those targeting disease, there are now CBD-rich edibles that don't make you high, such as raw organic cacao from the Green Cacao Company, multi-flavored CBD dominant lozenges CBD-OOS, and other similar products delightful to the palate as well as therapeutically effective.

As the health benefits are better understood, the huge market potential of non-psychoactive CBD-foods will likely be recognized. CBD-rich tinctures, such as Dew Drops Hemp Oil from Denver based Dixie Botanicals sells their industrial hemp oil over the internet with no medical marijuana permit required. Before long, there will be a plethora of food products rich in CBD, essentially creating a new food sector more legitimately called "health food," than what is currently found in natural foods stores.

CBD-rich foods need not make any health claims thus avoiding issues with the FDA. Imagine creamy CBD enhanced peanut butter, cooking oils, cereals, and beverages. Don't be surprised that in a few short years, you will be hearing doctors (not just cannabis physicians) advise their patients to "exercise, and get your CBD." Obtaining enough CBD to make a medically significant difference requires edible, vapor, or sublingual delivery thus avoiding the health risks associated with smoking.

In this fast and fanciful look forward, one should not leave out the inevitable resurgence of large-scale cultivation and production of fiber hemp, a versatile, ecologically sustainable plant with more than 25,000 known industrial applications--everything from hemp clothing, cosmetics, and foods (hemp seeds are a powerful source of protein), to oil-free plastics, hemp surfboards, insulation, and car panels.

Practically speaking, CBD, or what Robert Louis Stevenson called the "golden oil," is but a by-product of the non-psychoactive hemp plant. As you read this, thousands of industrial hemp farms are stripping the CBD-rich leaves and stems from the desired fiber and composting them. It's reasonable to suppose that the tragedy of losing all that medical value for victims of cancer and other maladies will not be lost on those that follow us.

If the cannabis plant hasn't done enough for us--providing wellness for the body and change for the mind, it can also help us pull the petroleum out of our economic jugular, possibly giving rise to a healthier vegetable-based organic life-support system for our children.

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Meet the Denver Man Cruising Colorado in a Limo, Passing Out Free Pot

http://www.alternet.org/meet-denver-man-cruising-colorado-limo-passing-out-free-pot?paging=off

Clearly, he's not in it for the money.

May 1, 2013 | By Doug Fine

As he prepared to distribute the first of 100,000 specialized cannabis seedlings in a limo once owned by Ferdinand Marcos, the last thing Denver’s Bill Althouse was worried about was money. This is important, since the debut of his “Free For All” cannabis delivery project, which he invited me to witness on a recent early spring afternoon, hinged on gratis distribution.

“You’re in sync with (Colorado’s cannabis-legalizing) Amendment 64 if you give it away,” the 61-year-old engineer told me as, without fanfare, he launched what he considers to be a landmark project that is part humanitarian outreach and part viable scientific field research.

No, Althouse is not one of the venture capitalists poised to profit from the end of the Drug War. His priorities are closer to those of sourdough starter. Only instead of bread, what he was delivering in his vegetable oil-powered limo this chilly day was a mother plant that had tested high in a non-psychoactive cannabinoid (component of the cannabis plant) known as cannabidiol, or CBD.

Althouse recognized from personal experimentation that high-CBD cannabis strains have helped dramatically ease his own PTSD symptoms. So, with Colorado’s 2012 legalization of adult use of cannabis, Althouse relocated to the Rocky Mountain State because he’d come up with a plan to help other sufferers.

“The idea is to deliver CBD-rich cannabis plants across Colorado, and let the cloning and healing begin,” he told me in the upscale Denver outskirt of Lakeland. He was struggling down his front yard path while clutching a bushy, deep green cannabis plant. “And for people who are already healthy adults, study after study shows CBD to be a cancer fighting tool, part of any adult’s health maintenance regimen. You should be throwing the flowers from this lady in your morning shake.”

The strain Althouse had chosen to distribute is called Harlequin. The mother plant I was now watching him stuff into the back seat of the limo (we’ll call her Rebecca) tested at eight percent CBD (and three percent THC, the psychoactive and thus most famous of the 90 known cannabinoids).

Now, I learned in our first hour together that Althouse could cite dozens of studies from around the world that confirm CBD’s health benefits in areas far beyond the psychiatric. In fact, I heard about (and later confirmed) studies that showed promise in areas ranging from pain reduction to mood elevation to tumor cytotoxicity (cancer cell destruction). One example that’s received a lot of attention is a 2010 study by researchers at the California Pacific Medical Center that showed rodent breast cancer cells wiped out by CBD.

But because even he acknowledged that cannabinoid research is in his infancy (thank you, Drug War), Althouse wants to see the Free For All distribution provide baseline data for what is in effect a massive scale field study into CBD’s mental health benefits.

“Because of the thousands of lives torn apart by legal psychotropic pharmaceuticals, I’m going to encourage Free For All participants to be part of growing the CBD database,” Althouse told me as he hopped into the 1979 Mercerdes stretch. Whether or not this massive, cream-colored pleasure conveyance had its sheepskin seat covers installed by a Filipino dictator (this I couldn’t confirm, but everything else Althouse told me was true), I saw right away that this was going to be the most comfortable journalistic ride I’d ever enjoyed. The suspension alone was like a massage.

Yes, at least he would be making his deliveries in style. Displaying a profound understanding of media relations, Althouse played chauffeur and sat me down a mile back on a sofa next to Rebecca. About half my size, she sat in her five-gallon pot, waving at me with every pothole while a light snow sent confetti flakes around me outside.

As we shot out into Mile High Traffic, I couldn’t fully hear him until I told him to speak up, since Althouse at first didn’t recognize how loudly he had to shout for sound to reach me in the different county that I occupied on the limo’s rear couch. But eventually I grasped that he was explaining his theory about why CBD-rich cannabis plants were likely to work well for PTSD symptom mitigation – or even syndrome recovery.

“If you’ve got anxiety issues to begin with, a lower THC level – not a negligible one, but a lower one – combined with the high CBD is probably what you’re looking for. When the data are in, we might see it turn out be a cannabinoid ratio issue, like we see with Omega fatty acids in our diet.”

His choice of first Free For All delivery was a no brainer for Althouse, the kind of guy who can make himself look ready to give a presentation to venture capitalists (or the AMA), but usually chooses not to. Turns out there was an Iraq veteran friend of his, Tim, who might benefit from, well, anything non-pharmaceutical that could help with some of the PTSD-related issues that are wreaking havoc in his post-service life.

“If it works, it could help me get my life back,” the goateed, 30-something Tim told me when we arrived at his Colorado Springs home. He said I could use his real name, but, speaking in an incredibly open manner that reflected his desperation, he was so dang forthcoming in the hour we chatted that I thought it better to not cause him to regret that decision.

“The pharmaceuticals I’ve been given are basically torture,” Tim told me at his kitchen table. “I spent a month without seeing daylight at one point. I’ve been a zombie.”

He pointed at a stack of nearby disk golf Frisbees. “I want to be out doing that again.” Then he pointed to an even nearer weekly pill box. “Not that.”

This echoed the tale of pain and PTSD medication woe I’d heard from many veterans in the course of my research for my recent book about the coming Drug Peace economy, Too High to Fail: Cannabis and the New Green Economic Revolution.

And yet it struck Althouse as he fired the Marcos-mobile up for the return ride, that the health maintenance promise of CBD might have the widest impact on overall American health care costs as the Drug Peace Era begins. After all, he pointed out, healthy living has long been documented as the best way to keep medical expenses down. If Americans substitute cannabis for the immensely dangerous and expensive-to-society alcohol in social situations, he believes we’re likely to see tens of millions saved in the public safety sphere.

“I see CBD as a nutritional supplement,” my chauffeur told me. “In Colorado and Washington, people no longer have to wait to get sick before they can benefit from it.”

Before we’d left Tim’s house, Althouse had hauled the well-coddled Rebecca from the limo to Tim’s kitchen. There, they clipped and transplanted two seedlings. The Free For All plan is one of those “then I told two friends, and they told two” viral efforts that Althouse hopes will bring millions of Harlequin plants into American lives.

Inside Tim’s house, the hopes were more personal. “It’d be nice to have my husband back,” Tim’s wife told me as we said goodbye. Tim was standing right next to her, nodding.

For more information on the cannabis Free For All, contact info@cannatech.coop.

This article was reprinted with permission from the NCC. It is a post from the weekly colum there, The Drug Bumblebee by Doug Fine.

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updated the Real Seed Co homepage with a blurb for people looking for CBD (limited word number so ran out of space at the end):

Interest in CBD is growing fast these days as people wise up to the growing body of credible scientific research pointing to this cannabinoid's amazing medicinal properties. E-mails have been coming in asking about CBD in the traditional strains sold by The Real Seed Company, so this post is aiming to clear up some of these questions.

If you are looking for CBD rich traditional cannabis strains then the best place to look is in old fashioned charas and hashish plants, or fibre hemp plants, (but RSC has only once sold an 'indica var. chinensis' hemp strain from Northern Laos).

Strains from the Himalaya, Middle East, or Hindu Kush such as the Parvati, Nepalese, Mazar-i-Sharif or Sinai can be expected to show medically useful quantities of CBD in something like 75% of plants.

Evidence suggests that there are three basic types of 'chemotype' which will show in a crop of traditional hashish plants:

1. Type 1 plants: high THC, low CBD

2. Type 2 plants: roughly equal amounts of THC and CBD

3. Type 3 plants: high CBD, low THC plants

Type 2 plants can be expected to make up about half of any crop, and Type 3 plants about a quarter.

So traditional strains used for hashish, charas and ganja fall into two very clear categories: strains that give medically useful amounts of CBD, and strains that don't. As with modern western hybrids like Skunk and Haze, most tropical ganja strains don't contain medically useful amounts of CBD. So that rules out varieties like Kerala, Thai, Highland Lao etc. The reason for that is that ganja strains have had generations of selection for maximum potency (i.e. THC) and this has effectively bred the genes for CBD out (CBD is not psychoactive, contrary to the old urban myths).

A strain with good amounts of CBD tends to produce a more centred, clearer and more grounded experience than pure, high THC varieties. For many people, this gives a more enjoyable and indulgent high, as well as great medicine. Or pure CBD = no high.

http://www.therealseedcompany.com

Edited by namkha
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Marijuana’s Sorcerer Stone – CBD Continues To Save Children’s Lives

http://www.theweedblog.com/marijuanas-sorcerer-stone-cbd-continues-to-save-childrens-lives/

Posted by Johnny Green at 7:40 AM on June 11, 2013

Cannabidiol, the 2nd most frequently found compound in cannabis known as CBD, represents marijuana in its most medicinal, therapeutic form. Since Medical Marijuana remains in its historical infancy, case studies regarding CBD (which doesn’t even get you high) remain scant-but the one’s that do exist speak volumes about the compound’s and cannabis’ healing powers.

Of late, CBD’s claim to fame-and medicine-continues to rise, and with due cause; this year alone, its success in treatingDiabetes, Breast Cancer, and Lung Cancer has been well documented by the mainstream media. Among its accolades, CBD is specifically known to successfully kill cancer cells and reduce internal inflammation-and study surrounding it remains scarce.

But the latest two case studies are perhaps the most important regarding CBD and Medical Marijuana’s nation (and world) wide legalization: two girls suffering from extreme epilepsy, one six and the other two, have been kept alive thanks to Cannabidiol.

As Marijuana goes mainstream, it’s crucial for the movement to highlight stories like these that extol CBD as Marijuana’s Sorcerer’s Stone-CBD literally has the ability to ease pain, prolong life, and make a viable medical impact on the world.

Charlotte, the Colorado-based six-year-old who suffered 25-30 seizures a day, remains the most clearcut, veritable proof of its vast power and its medicinal potential.

About 18 months ago, in the winter of 2011, Paige and Matt Figi signed a “do not resuscitate” order telling medical personnel to forgo life-saving measures for their daughter and let fate take its course.

They’d done all they could to control the seemingly endless, violent seizures that hit Charlotte 20, 40, 60 times a day. They put her on an extreme diet. They tried at least a dozen medications, many with harmful side effects. Despite some promising starts, nothing worked. And the rescue medications they were giving her to stop the seizures in fact stopped her breathing. CPR brought her back to life more than once.

After years of watching a cruel, incurable genetic disorder called Dravet Syndome rob their daughter of her basic bodily functions and send her into convulsions that caused head injuries and broken teeth, they had reached the end.

“We really thought, this is a horrible existence; she’s not going to live much longer.” Paige says. “This is not a life for her. This is torture. She is suffering all day. I’m not OK with this. She wasn’t even human anymore. She’d lie in my arms drooling, seizing, screaming and crying.”

Then, in an act of desperation, or inspiration – or maybe both – Matt called Paige from overseas, where he was working, and suggested a radical approach to Charlotte’s treatment.

“We need to try cannabis for Charlotte,” he told Paige. “We live in a compassionate state.”

Fifteen months later, the little girl with the DNR order is standing in the kitchen of their Black Forest home with her mother getting her Pull-Ups changed, cuddling in the arms of a visitor, playing with toys and strategically pushing the buttons on her “talker,” an electronic device that communicates when Charlotte can’t.

Her seizures have dropped from 1,200 a month to three, and the ones she has are shorter in duration and less severe. She’s off all the other medications with their troubling side effects.And, as one of the youngest medical marijuana patients in Colorado, her dramatic turnaround is starting to draw national attention, with a CNN report on the horizon. [Full Story: Gazette]

And she’s certainly not alone. The New Jersey State Senate just (finally, three years late) green-lit safe access for seriously ill minors, which means the two-year-old girl with identical symptoms to Charlotte can safely medicate-and continue to live.

While it’s by no means “new” news that Marijuana helps prevent and contain seizures and their symptoms, its news worth repeating, especially as it relates to children in non-Medical Marijuana states who stare death in the eye on a daily basis.

Embedded within the legalization is a Catch-22: Recreational versus Medical. If “Dabs” are the movement’s Scarlet Letter, then CBD is its Sorcerer Stone and Saving Grace. The Government can only ignore the advice of doctors, cold, hard-facts, and its nation’s sick for so long.

Cannabidiol-again, a key ingredient in Cannabis that, again doesn’t even get you high-has proven the “Marijuana as Medicine” Hypothesis to be TRUTH. Yet it somehow remains an under-researched mystery and unknown quantity to nearly everyone outside of the Medical Marijuana scene. If you ask the average Stoner what CBD is, he will look at you with a quizzical, confused face.

This MUST change: it’s high time for everyone in this country and world to discover CBD’s magical ability and start recognizing it-before more people resort to pills or, even worse: die.

CBD is Cannabis’ hidden key and secret weapon that saves lives and could finally unlock Marijuana’s prohibition: its our job to make copies of this key and show the world what’s really inside Mary Jane’s closet.

Share this post with a friend and spread the education of CBD. If you’re still confused as to what CBD is and how it works, watch this educational video:

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One excellent report after another, what a wealth of knowledge and inspiration to push on to get the legal side of the cannabis issue back into the range of "sane and compassionate"! Thank you for finding and sharing this, Namkha!

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it's one of the many bitter ironies of the UK government's stance on cannabis that while the press whip up hysteria about 'skunk', and the politicians exploit it either to get more punitive, or to avoid having to do anything that might upset the Daily Mail, the main effect of policy has been to encourage indoor growing and drive hash - which contains CBD! - out of the market place

so these bastards harp on about 'skunk' and bang on about how cannabis isn't how it used to be in the '60s and '70s - despite the fact it is thanks to their oppressive, punitive policies that few people in the UK could even find any hash to buy if they wanted to

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