Welcome to UK420

Register now to gain access to all of our features. Once registered and logged in, you will be able to contribute to this site by submitting your own content or replying to existing content. You'll be able to customize your profile, receive reputation points as a reward for submitting content, while also communicating with other members via your own private inbox, plus much more!

This message will be removed once you have signed in.

Sign in to follow this  
Followers 0

CBD - Cannabidiol: A Summary of the Research

83 posts in this topic

<big snip> has anyone ever done a CBD test on a pollinated grow complete with seeds? It would have to be a landrace????

Since asking the above, I've been searching the web and can't find any real data only surmise and opinion.

I have also found opinion on the levels of CBD in Male plants. One or two posts refer to CBD in males and that it ***may*** be higher than females.

GW seem to have found a strain that is high in CBD but as they 'blend' this with a high THC strain this seems to point to a High CBD that is low in THC???

I am sorry that I cannot supply links to the posts - I should have bookmarked them but I have never been too 'organised'.


P.S. Day 5 of grow 3 showing above ground and 1 that seems to be going round and round just under..... Now under fluoros - Hermione, our first born, is doing well but very leggy the others are squat and healthy the light is only on about 15/9 as we have to sleep sometime. Keeping the temperature stable is difficult as the propagator hasn't arrived - after today it is officially late, but the supplier says that it was sent by Royal Mail so I'll expect it in time for next Xmas - propagators weigh a lot less than 30kg and we paid enough for a courier through Amazon. Just had the new growlights delivered a T5 4ft 8 tube thingie, which should do for tomatoes as well - anyone seen the price of tomatoes recently????

Share this post

Link to post

hi FoxUK --- I moved your post to this thread because your answer is in this thread

CBD is made in plants that have the genes for CBD - pollinated or unpollinated has nothing to do with it

CBD is the most common cannabinoid in hemp - it is also found in Chinese hemp, wild cannabis, and in hashish plants - such as any Himalayan charas plant, Lebanese etc.

you are unlikely to find significant quantities of CBD in traditional ganja plants or typical modern indoor strains, because of the more intense selection for potency - i.e. for THC

CBD is found in traditional hashish/charas plants because the main selection is for resin - seeds are pooled together after sieving or hand-rubbing the plants to make resin, whereas in traditional ganja seeds from specific potent plants can be kept, and in modern breeding clones can be kept etc.

Edited by namkha
1 person likes this

Share this post

Link to post

this is a fantastic website packed with information about cannabinoids


some scholarly Papers on cannabinoids


Hazekamp & Grotenhermen: Review on clinical studies with cannabis and cannabinoids

To date, a large number of controlled clinical trials have been done evaluating the therapeutic applications of cannabis and cannabis-based preparations. This current review reports on the more recent clinical data available.

Henquet & Cooper: Does Cannabidiol Protect Against the Negative Effects of THC?

Published in the British Journal of Psychiatry (2010) 197, 259-260.

Izzo: Non-Psychotropic Plant Cannabinoids

The plant Cannabis sativa produces over 421 chemical compounds, including about 80 terpeno-phenol compounds named phytocannabinoids that have not been detected in any other plant.


CBD-Rich Cannabis

strain evaluation survey


The Society of Cannabis Clinicians has developed a survey that asks about patients’ responses to CBD-rich cannabis. While laboratory-based research is uncovering fascinating information about CBD, physicians want to know what patients are experiencing. Are the effects of CBD-rich cannabis and high-THC cannabis noticeably different? If so, how? Patients, collectively, can provide the answers.

The SCC Survey has been a work in progress for several months. We think the current format is easy for respondents to complete, taking only about 10 or 15 minutes of online time.

For the survey data to be reliable, the medicine that patients are using should be analyzed by a trustworthy lab and labeled by the dispensary as to CBD and THC content. Properly tested and labeled cannabis is a prerequisite for any serious study of its components’ effects. (We expect to study the effects of some terpenoids and other cannabinoids in due course.)

The industry is still catching up to the importance of informing patients and physicians about the content and purity of their medicine. So far only about 25% of the survey’s responses are based on verifiable cannabinoid content. We hope to see more lab-tested medicine available soon. Here’s how the process should work:

George Grower brings his CBD-Rich herb that he has named “Cativan” to Discreet Dispensary for distribution to patients. Discreet Dispensary sends a small sample of Cativan to a lab. The lab reports back: 8% CBD, 3%THC content, no sign of mold or pest infestation. The rest of George’s Cativan is then labeled by the dispensary to identify the content and source: CBD8/THC3-DD (CBD8%, THC3% – Discreet Dispensary).

Patsy Patient, who has MS, sees the label describing Cativan as high in CBD. Dispensary staff confirms what she’s read —CBD-rich herb may be helpful for muscle spasms. So she buys it, uses it for three weeks, and then decides to share her experience by taking the SCC survey. She logs onto the survey online and, when prompted, enters the code: CBD8/THC3-DD.

When we analyze the survey results, we know that her experience was based on known cannabinoid levels from a reliable dispensary using a qualified lab to test their medicines. To researchers seeking to evaluate the effectiveness of CBD-rich Cannabis on spasticity in MS, Patsy’s feedback is clearly more meaningful than feedback from a patient who cannot verify the cannabinoid content of their medicine. (She is also the smarter consumer, choosing medicine that has been tested and making an informed choice for her personal needs.)

Still, some patterns are beginning to emerge from the small group of initial survey responses we’ve analyzed. CBD-rich cannabis appears to be effective for pain control, muscle spasticity, sleep disorders, and anxiety. THC may be more effective for appetite improvement, anti-depressant effects, creativity and motivation. THC is more likely to induce paranoia and stony-spacey side effects.

Many patients appreciate the opportunity to describe their experience with cannabis medication and to be a part of a serious research project. And as more patients have access to lab-tested product, they appreciate the power it gives them to fine-tune their needs and self-titrate the therapeutic effects.

With increasing access to lab-tested cannabis, we may learn that different cannabinoid ratios have different applications. My colleagues and I look forward to the day when so many patients have access to accurately labeled medicine —and have taken the SCC survey—that we can report with confidence the unique therapeutic effects of CBD-Rich cannabis.

there is a link to an online survey


Edited by namkha
5 people like this

Share this post

Link to post

All downloadable too, thanks Namkha.

Share this post

Link to post

I know someone that thinks CBD is a GMO and all I can do is lol as it's a Co-do that is easy to breed for! I know I have been using Harlequin 9.77% CBD and it's sure helped with my Asthma..

Share this post

Link to post

Study: Administration Of Non-Psychotropic Cannabinoid Mitigates Psychotic Symptoms In Schizophrenics

Mannheim, Germany: The administration of the non-psychotropic plant constituent cannabidiol (CBD) is associated with a significant reduction in psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, according to clinical trial data published in the journal Translational Psychiatry.

An international team of researchers from Germany and the United States performed a four week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial assessing the clinical relevance of cannabidiol versus amisulpride, a potent antipsychotic agent, in patients with acute schizophrenia.

Researchers reported that the administration of either substance was associated with significant clinical improvement, but they acknowledged, "[C]annabidiol displayed a markedly superior side-effect profile."

Amisulpride is categorized as "one of the most effective drugs currently in use for the treatment of schizophrenia."

Investigators concluded, "Our results provide evidence that the non-cannabimimetic constituent of marijuana, cannabidiol, exerts clinically relevant antipsychotic effects that are associated with marked tolerability and safety, when compared with current medications. ... The results ... potentially represent a completely new mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia."

A review of CBD's safety profile in humans, published online in 2011 in the scientific journal Current Drug Safety, concluded that the cannabinoid is non-toxic, safe, and well tolerated in humans, even in high doses.

Separate investigations of CBD have documented the cannabinoid to possess a variety of therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-epileptic, anti-cancer, and bone-stimulating properties.

Full text of the study, "Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia," is available online here:


1 person likes this

Share this post

Link to post

CBD Search Parvati, Lebanese


Test Results

the only really reliable method is gas chromatography - but this is an interesting thread searching a couple of RSC strains for CBD

and this is another grow of Parvati looking for CBD

Medicinal Parvati Grow fybromyalgia, pain, COPD (pulmonary disease)


fybromyalgia, pain, COPD (pulmonary disease

Share this post

Link to post

Pot Compound Inhibits Tumor Cell Growth, Study Says


20 November 2003

Milan, Italy: Administration of the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) inhibits the growth of human glioma (brain tumor) cells both in vitro (e.g., a petri dish) and in animals, according to clinical trial data published in the November 14, 2003 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics.

"The addition of CBD to the culture medium led to a dramatic drop ... [in the] viability [of] glioma cells in a concentration-dependent manner," researchers at the University of Milan found. The study also demonstrated "for the first time, that the antiproliferative effect of CBD was correlated to induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death of malignant cells)."

Scientists further demonstrated that the administration of CBD in mice "significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneously implanted U87 human glioma cells." They concluded, "Non-psychoactive CBD ... produce a significant antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo, thus suggesting a possible application of CBD as an antineoplastic agent (something which prevents the growth of malignant cells)."

The study's findings come just one month after a clinical review in the journal Nature Reviews Cancer suggested that cannabinoids' palliative effects in cancer patients and ability to inhibit the growth of certain types of malignant tumors make them a potentially desirable agents in the treatment of cancer.

Mitch Earleywine, University of Southern California Clinical Science professor and author of the book Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence, praised the Italian study's results. "Cannabinoid research continues to show tremendous potential in the treatment of cancer," said Earleywine, who serves on NORML's Advisory Board. "The vast majority of this work originates outside the US, often in countries that lack our economic and scientific advantages. Let's hope that our drug policy won't stymie the battle against the second leading cause of death in America."

Studies published earlier this year demonstrated that marijuana and its derivatives induce tumor regression in rodents, including the inhibition of malignant gliomas and skin cancer.

For more information, please contact either Paul Armentano or Allen St. Pierre of the NORML Foundation, at (202) 483-8751. Abstracts of the study, entitled "Antitumor effects of cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines," are available online at:


Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb


2009 Dec

Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol binds cannabinoid (CB(1) and CB(2)) receptors, which are activated by endogenous compounds (endocannabinoids) and are involved in a wide range of physiopathological processes (e.g. modulation of neurotransmitter release, regulation of pain perception, and of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and liver functions). The well-known psychotropic effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, which are mediated by activation of brain CB(1) receptors, have greatly limited its clinical use. However, the plant Cannabis contains many cannabinoids with weak or no psychoactivity that, therapeutically, might be more promising than Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Here, we provide an overview of the recent pharmacological advances, novel mechanisms of action, and potential therapeutic applications of such non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoids. Special emphasis is given to cannabidiol [CBD}, the possible applications of which have recently emerged in inflammation, diabetes, cancer, affective and neurodegenerative diseases, and to Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin, a novel CB(1) antagonist which exerts potentially useful actions in the treatment of epilepsy and obesity.

Edited by namkha

Share this post

Link to post
gallery_13376_4764_103245.jpg Edited by namkha
1 person likes this

Share this post

Link to post

Marijuana Compound CBD May Beat Anti-Psychotics at treating Schizophrenia


June 7, 2012

A certain marijuana compound known as cannabidiol (CBD) can treat schizophrenia as well as antipsychotic drugs, with far fewer side effects, according to a preliminary clinical trial.

The research team, led by Markus Leweke of the University of Cologne in Germany, studied 39 people with schizophrenia who were hospitalized for a psychotic episode. Nineteen patients were treated with amisulpride, an antipsychotic medication that is not approved in the U.S., but is similar to other approved drugs.

The remaining 20 patients were given CBD, a substance found in marijuana that is considered responsible for the mellowing or anxiety-reducing effects. Unlike the main ingredient in marijuana, THC, which can trigger psychotic episodes and worsen schizophrenia, CBD has antipsychotic effects, according to prior research in both animals and humans.

Neither the patients nor the scientists knew who was receiving which drug. At the end of the four-week trial, both groups made significant clinical improvements in their schizophrenic symptoms, and there was no difference between those getting CBD or amisulpride.

“The results were amazing,” said Daniel Piomelli, Ph.D., professor of pharmacology at the University of California-Irvine and a co-author of the study. “Not only was [CBD] as effective as standard antipsychotics, but it was also essentially free of the typical side effects seen with antipsychotic drugs.”

Antipsychotic drugs may cause devastating and sometimes permanent movement disorders; they can also lower a patient’s motivation and pleasure. The new generation of these drugs can also lead to weight gain and increase the risk for diabetes. These side effects are well known as a major hindrance during treatment.

In the German study, weight gain and movement problems were observed in patients taking amisulpride, but not CBD.

“These exciting findings should stimulate a great deal of research,” said Dr. John Krystal, chair of psychiatry at Yale University School of Medicine, who was not associated with the research. He notes that CBD not only had fewer side effects, but also seemed to work better on schizophrenia’s so-called “negative symptoms,” which are notoriously hard to treat.

Negative symptoms of schizophrenia include social withdrawal, a lowered sense of pleasure and a lack of motivation. However, since current antipsychotic medications can actually cause these negative symptoms, it wasn’t clear whether CBD was better than amisulpride at getting rid of these symptoms, or whether CBD simply caused fewer side effects to begin with.

If replicated, the results suggest that CBD may be at least as effective as current medications for the treatment of schizophrenia, without the severe side effects that make patients reluctant to take medication.

“The real problem with CBD is that it’s hard to develop for a variety of silly reasons,” said Piomelli. Since it comes from marijuana, there are obvious political issues surrounding its use. Extracting it from the plant is also expensive.

But the biggest obstacle may be that CBD is a natural compound, and therefore can’t be patented the way new drugs are. So although CBD could outsell the current blockbuster antipsychotic drugs, pharmaceutical companies aren’t likely to develop it. Researchers are working to develop synthetic versions of CBD that would avoid such hurdles.

“We have one and are hoping to move forward in the near future,” Piomelli said.

The study is published online in the journal Translational Psychiatry.

Share this post

Link to post

Interesting article on CBD and matured buds, not sure how accurate it is in regards to all plants containing CBD when mature including skunks and tropical strains.

What do you make of it namkha?


The Importance Of Matured Cannabis


By Paul Lawrenson

I would like to outline some important considerations in regards to cannabis, the fact that unlike most all other recreational drugs, it is a high order plant which has complexities which are often not properly understood nor respected.

With cocaine, leaves of the Coca plant are basically washed in a solvent extraction process and one gets cocaine hydrochloride salts. With Heroin, Papaver somniferum reaches basic maturity and releases resin from the seed pods, resin is not produced until ripe, then all the resin is the same, refine it and one has heroin. With LSD, precursor LSA is chemically altered to diethylamide from the amide lysergic acid precursor. Synthetic designer drugs are chemical compounds processed to derive certain molecules.

Not much difference in the base to end product except for strength, most all drugs are the same thing, refined or synthetically created.

But psychoactive cannabis is different. It goes through two main stages, vegetative, then flowering, most people know that, but, as a high order plant, it goes through many other stages from seedling to mature plant. In vegetative growth, it is a factory, not only building up the cellulose structure of the plant but in the first few weeks of life it goes through many stages of development into a hormone factory. Various ratios of hormones trigger the later flowering stages when light cycles decrease and dark cycles of the days from spring through summer create a phytochrome build-up. This triggers flowering at around 12/12 light/dark hours give or take an hour or two depending on the strain/hybrid stages when grown outdoors or when switched to a 12 hour photoperiod if under artificial light. From flowering cycle being triggered the plants then begin creating the psychoactive and non psychoactive compounds we know as THCs, the main delta complex and the plant creates significant amounts of terpines which are primarily associated with the distinct smells. These oxidise into terpinoids and together with the THC complex and CBD, create the full personality and effect of the highs or stones of whichever strain or hybrid the plants are, at point of maturity and to the genetic potential of whichever strain/hybrid the plants are.

Basic THC Delta 9.


Tetrahydrocannabivarin or Delta 6/THCv


also oxidant, cannabivarin CBV


Most people just think of THC, mainly delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol, this is the stimulant THC we are all familiar with. Then there is another main one which over recent years more are becoming aware of, which is delta 6 tetrahydrocannabinol which is the more psychedelic factor found in equatorial and tropical sativa cultivars. THC D6 is found in all psychoactive cannabis but at higher levels in these strains and subsequent hybrids coming from the tropics and those plants whose ancestors come from high altitudes in lower latitudes such as the Hindu Kush and mountainous regions around Afghanistan and Pakistan, etc due to higher exposure to UVB spectrum in equatorial/topical and high altitude areas.

THC D6 oxidises in maturity of the plants to CBV, which like CBD, tends to balance the effects of the THCv.

The plants in vegetative stage, produce little THC D9, or any other psychoactive compound. Terpine levels are also low, it is when the plant factory becomes fully developed and phytochromes trigger the plants into bud production, that THC and terpines start being produced in abundance. CBD is produced later in the bud production cycle, the main flowering period, from shorter flowering indica to longer flowering sativa, the compounds which balance out the stimulant THC D9, which as we know is mainly CBD, but also CBV and a few others in conjunct, only appear later in the plants flowering cycle, as the earlier produced THCs and terpines oxidise to Terpenoids, prior to that, the plant produces mostly THCs and terpines are produced in order to protect the flowers, which are basically progenative ovaries to produce seeds to continue lifecycle of next generations.

Institute of Psychiatry.

In more recent times, there has been some attempt by the prohibitionist propagandists, to create a safer middle ground in their positions, part of this has been articles released by The Institute of Psychiatry regarding skunk, the deadly and evil super cannabis, supposedly.

See this item, one of many showing how this is being used…


This is so medicinal cannabis produced by extant pharma corps etc, products like Sativex etc, can be distinguished from this supposedly evil form of cannabis which makes everybody using it mentally deranged psychopaths. Because quite rightly, the ambiguity of these safe forms of cannabis the pharma corps are saying is safe, needs to be explained as to being different from the deadly cannabis recreational users are using and being made mental cases from, so now, there is apparently a clear dividing line. The skunk cannabis that the authorities are so concerned about has no, yes, they said no, asserted no CBD whatsoever, and of course, the medicinal forms all have CBD so it is relatively safe for pharma corps to provide as a medicament.

But the truth is, skunk does have CBD, all psychoactive cannabis plants contain a level of CBD the same as all other compounds found in all plants, just at varying ratios, according to the potentials of whatever genetic template, whichever strain or hybrid is grown. When grown to maturity all cannabis has CBD.

Even the most potent equatorial sativas which are renowned for being high THC/THCv, have a CBD ratio, when grown to maturity.

So too does the supposed deadly evil skunk contain enough CBD, and other oxidised compounds such as CBV, to round off the stimulant effects of THCs, so while what they are stating regards CBD is perfectly true, the attempt to cite skunk as still being a main offender which causes, they do not state triggers but cite causality, is a nonsense, because all psychoactive strains without exception contain CBD and other oxidase stabilisers of THCs and the highs they provide, some lower, some higher CBD, but all do.

In this regard, where they found negligible amounts or no CBD whatsoever in tested skunk plants, for those who understand how cannabis matures will know, it was immature skunk hybrid cannabis, and this brings me to my main points about “The importance of matured cannabis.”.

And the fact that The Institute of Psychiatry and those expounding their findings regards psychoses and little or no CBD content in cannabis have unwittingly provided a significant argument for a legalised climate so all cannabis meant for recreational and medical use and sale can be regulated and spot checked for maturity so the main consuming public do not use immature cannabis, because we understand CBD comes from the final stages of flowering cycle and CBD content is potentated by the curing process which allows further oxidation of THCs and terpines to terpenoids

Final Stages of Flowering Cannabis Plants and Trichomes.

As many will undoubtedly know, after the main vegetative growth stage and phytochromes trigger flowering and calyx production, from age 2-4 weeks from germination, which collectively are the buds. To protect the calyxes/seed ovaries, the plants produce capitate stalked trichomes…

See picture here…

And it is these which contain the main THC complex and as is generally accepted, presence of the trichomes and THCs are to protect the calyxes from harms from UVB radiation, the more UVB the plants are exposed to during flowering, the more profusely abundant the trichomes become and for the plant, were it to be pollinated and seed bearing, the trichomes act like a radiation shield for the seeds, of course we humans who want to smoke the buds do not require seeded buds, we desire seedless sensimilla bud, but trichomes are produced regardless as calyxes develop and mature.

But until the plant reaches the final weeks of flowering, the main content are the THCs, terpines which are responsible for the increasingly powerful smells of whatever strain/hybrid they are, and have practically no CBD content and the terpines are still mainly smell and haven’t converted to terpenoids.

THC D9 is a potent stimulant and if plants are cropped too early, any cannabis will have little or no CBD and will only provide a very stimulant high, whilst not every cannabis user finds this adverse, many do, it is well known that a lot of novice or infrequent users who use cannabis which is immature, as in, were one to look, the capitate trichomes would be all clear, not all cloudy/milky or with a good ratio of amber coloured trichomes, but clear as crystal, will have a paranoid reaction, become confused, they will have physiological experiences such as heart palpitations and some break out into a sweat from elevated physiologicals, some start to have panic attacks.

The anecdotal evidences for the reactions people have to immature cannabis is all over cannabis community forums, of every country around the globe, especially on the cultivation forums, and that is where legislators need to go and look properly at what many academics involved with cultivation, many very experienced people who understand cannabis and the stages it goes through as a high order plant, so they can stop being guided by those who in comparison, have nothing but a basic and tenuous understanding of cannabis. They seem to think all cannabis is just cannabis, like an opium poppy is an opium poppy, cocaine hydrochloride is coke just as varying strengths but all the same drug, MDA/MDMA/MDEA and variants are just that, LSD is LSD so on so forth, they are all the same drug, but cannabis transitions through stages, where from around 4-5 weeks minimum or longer if vegetative stage is prolonged, leaves and developing buds from single calyxes at meristem internodes to the full bud masses have an increasing THC content, which rises as the number of calyxes increase into bud mass. They expand in size and stature to their full potential, whether pollinated/seeded and it is during the final weeks that early THC production in the trichomes on the leaves and buds increasingly start to oxidise and CBD and other high/stone stabilising oxidase are created.

In the final weeks of growth, in most indica’s and indica dominant hybrids the flowering cycle lasts between 7-9 weeks if indoor cultivation, or as indicated calendar window during the opposite natural photoperiod to the new growth of spring and the plants mature in the early to late autumn as they are influenced in their stages by “photoperiodism” and are long day plants, whose maturity mechanisms are cryptochromic.



In sativa and sativa dominant hybrids, the flowering cycles can be anything from 7-8 weeks in a few early sativas to 14-26 weeks on some very stimulant and/or psychedelic cultivars and landrace strains.

As is known, the vegetative stage indoor photoperiod mimics spring equinox, into summer solstice at 12/12 light/dark when veg’d enough and wanting to start flowering, and so if people cultivating for sale and wanting to hasten maturity, and actually wanted to bother, plants can easily be fooled into thinking the Autumn equinox is passing, winter solstice is nearing by giving the plants a longer dark period, to the same extents to using the spring photoperiod of 16/08 in the vegetative stage, as opposed to 24/00 vegetation, turning dark period up a couple of hours from 12/12 to a maximum of 08/16 but as much as 10/14 in the last few weeks is enough to hasten ripening by that last 10-14 days and so quicken the ambering, but so too does the grower need to be mindful of overshooting when speeding plants up like that as too amber %90+ is only good for cancer sufferer medication.

So now we have the crux of my pro legalised industry arguments here, which the Institute of Psychiatry and those expounding on, have unwittingly validated.

Because prohibition has led to a distinct lack of common knowledge in the regards I’ve outlined because it’s treated as a taboo subject and that is thus far very much an abstraction to what the entirety is, but main pertinencies are there.

We have as I see it, a few different groupings of those who do not grow cannabis plants to mature, most not curing either, no disrespect meant to any cultivators who endeavour to the, plus/minus %30 amber average.

The first, is commercial cultivators, aka, “cashcroppers” who are entirely focused on cultivating cannabis purely for profit and it is sad that many of these know damn well that there is a point of diminishing returns in the latter stages of development in the cannabis flowering cycle, where plants stop growing, they cease to put any more energy into increasing bud mass, which is weight, which is the saleable product after being dried, so many crop at that point, when the plant is pretty much at maximum weight for whichever commercial strain, they know this is a point when trichomes are mainly clear, depending on strain, clear into milky.

Here’s another picture depicting trichome maturity stages…

As you can see, emphasis is on yield, on the clear trichomes, but that also equates to completely raw THC D9 and totally stimulant with practically no other compounds present to round off the potent stimulant effects, then they state “cloudy” which is as they say the up and heady high, then the ambering, then they say about the mix of cloudy/amber.

But as I say, at the point of diminishing returns, the plants will have pretty much reached their maximum bud mass and weight, with most commercial strains, trichomes will be clear mainly and a small ratio of cloudy, or milky as I prefer to say, and that means fully stimulant, with no oxidase terpenoids or CBD/CBV etc to round off the high, not to mention the full personality and indeed beneficial qualities medicinally speaking, are not present either, the majority of the active compounds derive from latter stages of oxidisation.

It is at that stage, clear mainly, into milky, which makes a large amount of cannabis users feel paranoid and gives them adverse effects, and we all know, that paranoia, is a main psychological component in psychoses.

Raw, un-oxidised THC, acts on the brain receptors, in a similar way to amphetamines and prolonged use of amphetamines does trigger psychosis, especially in conjunction with long periods of sleep deprivation. An effect of raw THC is it will deprive people of proper sleep because it over rev’s the brain and chemicals usually produced by the brain during sleep periods which induce dream state are not produced properly and this leads to the detrimental effects as the cumulative consequences of over stimulating neurochemicals takes hold and the brain essentially snaps and misfires more and more, so a psychotic episode, even if they do get their heads down for a few hours through fatigue, if they use a lot of unripe cannabis with raw THC, they will be unlikely to achieve REM states, and that in regards to potential psychosis, is what matters, waking up again after a brief sleep period without REM may restore some physical energy, but then frequent users of unripe cannabis will drink that coffee etc, have another wake and bake spliff etc, and so the REM deprived person goes on and on day after day until that snap occurs, that, is what can seriously cause a psychotic episode especially when stress factors like troubled relationships, or familial difficulties, money worries, employemnt difficulties, prolonged personality clash dynamics etc and for example, are present and serve as triggers.

And drug induced sleep deprivation psychoses are what mental health agencies have been dealing with or mental conditions very similar to that, with many of those it does also go into other substances they are using but raw THC itself can do it alone, the compounded and detrimental effects when mixing other drugs with cannabis is another issue which I will articulate at a later stage.

It is entirely true, CBD is anti-psychotic as much as is sedative, so plants with a decent ratio of CBD will do the exact opposite, it will allow the brain to achieve REM states properly and balance the stimulant THC D9 so the brain doesn’t ‘over rev’ too much.

And that is where prohibition has been actively causing the mental health issues prohibitionists and concerned, misled public cite as reason to keep it prohibited, because a main group who cashcrop, do not allow plants to mature and develop CBD in any useful amounts. They will crop the plants when they stop putting on mass, dry it and sell it and that is usually a good two weeks before plants start oxidising and the trichomes go from milky into amber. The plants are a saleable product at that stage, they will get people high, but with many it’s too high, and it is a minority who will have badly adverse reactions in occasional use, a smaller group still who will use far too much every day and give themselves REM sleep deprivation psychosis. The group who have mental health issues from other causality who will have adverse reaction to raw THC, but those wholesaling such cannabis are basically ripping everybody off for the sake of getting an extra crop or two in every year, or getting it out of risk of detection by police as quickly as possible, or don’t actually know about cannabis having to mature. I accept this is as much a consequence of small clusters of smaller time growers to supply a small area in whatever regions and there are a few reasons, as I mentioned, but it is mainly cash croppers and we know simple S.E. Asian farmers are forced into tending crops by organised criminals, so I wouldn’t expect them to understand the niceties of cannabis growing. I’m sure as far as they are concerned, they grow the plants until they slow down then crop it so others can make the profits.

Another way people can end up with unripe cannabis is by taking flowering period guidelines too seriously. If on a seed packet, it states 6 weeks, 7-8-9 weeks, it does not mean they flower them at 12/12 for exactly that amount of time and crop the plants, no, one has to check the maturation of the trichomes by using a loupe or macro function of a digital camera does the job, or snipping a small piece of bud off and putting it under a scope, but the guidelines for flowering period for a particular strain/hybrid are just that, guidelines, often stated as a little shorter to encourage people to buy them knowing hobby growers are looking for fast plants as much as cashcroppers want heaviest yields in as short a time possible. The number of weeks stated is usually a few weeks short of the reality. If they say 7 weeks on the packet you can be sure pretty much that the real number of weeks will be around 9-10 to have mature cannabis, at 7 weeks it will be at that clear into cloudy stage, no amber.

This is why there needs to be a reform in cannabis law, to allow a legal and regulated market, with people who actually know how to grow it to maturity and care enough to do so. Regular checks of product being sold as to ratio of amber trichomes on sampled herb, which for general sale should be at %30 give or take %10 amber and medicinal users prefer %50-70 but the milky/cloudy with amber just a few percent visible should be offered. All three final stage ratios would be popular and much safer than those given immature weed with clear trichomes to use.

I may like a bit of immature cannabis, many do, but too many people do have adverse reactions with unripe cannabis with raw THC and unless the consumer demographic knows they like it, they should only be sold cannabis which has matured to %30 (plus minus %10) with a choice of an earlier cropped product where trichomes are just about to turn amber, the clear and energetic high from milky trichomes is good when the trichomes are just starting to turn amber, up to %5.

There is nothing wrong with people using cannabis with clear or milky trichomes if they state a preference, because not everybody will use it regularly enough to develop the potential mental heath issues with constant use of raw THC. Some are not prone to ill effect and suited to speedy highs and other stimulant drugs and indeed many like the very stimulant high it gives, but it should be as a preference, on request from regulated vendors or those hobby cultivating at their own risk, general consumption people should use herb cultivated when around %30 amber and **cured**.

Curing allows for a further period of oxidation of active compounds and that is beneficial to a cannabis user on several levels. People also tend to use less if properly mature and well cured because the active compounds do everything they should do and is a superior high/stone than cannabis just cropped and dried for sale, very different to immature cannabis which tends to be a shorter lasting high and people use more as the brain tries to keep stimulated and this often leads the user to use too much, a common issue with speed actually and again a similarity between raw THC D9 and amphetamines. Curing is a necessary part of the process, something which is fast being forgotten in commercial weed terms.

But unless everybody in the currently illegal climate, carries a jeweller’s loupe with them, demands to see the product first, checks to ensure it’s decently matured cannabis, and rejects it if not, those who rely on cannabis from street level, which is most people, whose dealers procure their supplies from exactly the cashcroppers in organised crime rings or clusters of small time growers ignorant to the importance of mature cannabis, or don’t care, then the mental health of a small, but significant amount of people will remain at risk.

Whether it’s an equatorial sativa, or a skunk plant, or whatever, grown to a proper point of maturity, they will have a CBD ratio which lessens or completely negates risk of any psychoses in the user demographic of cannabis as much as the many other Oxidase stabilisers. Cannabis strains all have a balance at maturity which simply is not present in immature cannabis, even high ratio THC/THCv strains have that balance which lessens or negates risk of pyschoses, even though the CBD ratio may be low, nature has done a balancing trick, all have CBD without exception at maturity. As we know, some high CBD strains/hybrids can actually treat psychosis, not ruddy well cause it.

It isn’t any nasty evil new high potency strain which is any problem, a mature skunk plant will have CBD. They tested skunk which was immature is all, whether that’s a manipulation of the research, so easily done just by harvesting a test group 10-14 days before it should do and saying that’s indicative of all cannabis of that strain, or whether it was samples of seizures by police. Whatever, the skunk they based the Institute of Psychiatry findings on, was not mature grown skunk, simple as that. It is an unregulated market in the hands of growers who don’t know or don’t care about the importance of allowing cannabis plants to mature properly, nor usually do they cure the product meant for general sale.

There are many growers who do care, but then of course, decent people have had their grows demolished by police and they’ve been prosecuted just the same as any who are bad growers. So the cleverer organised crime suppliers to street level, the ones who do crop early because they care only about the money, stay at it while decent growers who would prefer to grow properly and offer people a quality and safer product, do not persist. So over the years and decades, inferior product which has more risk to mental health predominates the market, all caused because those who consider themselves knowledgeable on cannabis in governments and their advisors, don’t actually know that much about it and only see cannabis as cannabis, not the complex, high order plant which needs to be grown to full maturity.

Just the same as some people aren’t suited to alcohol, some not suited to speed, coke or whatever, not everybody is suited to cannabis use, that’s a fact, but generally speaking, decent cannabis is a safer drug than any other. It just needs to be grown properly by people who care about end product and the customers, not greedy criminals who either don’t care or don’t have enough intelligence to know. Either way, this is just another main reason among many others, why there should be a proper regulated cannabis industry. Last but not least, unripe cannabis is often a waste of money for those requiring it as a pain relief, because CBD is what they need, as well as those wanting it for spasticity etc, etc, which requires CBD, won’t find it in street weed often enough, because the cultivation is in the hands of many organised crime cultivators. They don’t know or don’t care about offering a properly matured and cured end product, which has a full personality with anti carcinogenic effects so as much a prophylaxis to recreational users as any using medicinally, because only mature plants offer the whole package. The younger the plants are cropped, the worse it is for medicinal users and the more a minority are risking their mental health.

I could expand layers of what i’ve written, go into things in much more detail, but you get my drift, as it were, so will leave it there for now.

The only sane way to treat cannabis, is a proper regulated market out of the hands of organised crime cultivators and those who don’t know or don’t care about giving people a properly matured and cured product, because that immature product has risks to mental health from those not knowing about such considerations, as much as it sells the end user short because unripe cannabis and raw THC is an inferior high/stone to mature with all active compounds present, end of, nuff said.

Thank you for reading.

Peace. : )

1 person likes this

Share this post

Link to post

hi Rinse,

that's pretty well a load of steaming crap

I'd hope anybody who has taken the time to read through the info earlier in this thread would already have enough info to hand to see that this article from Paul Lawrenson is misleading

when it comes to CBD and THC there are only three basic types of cannabis plant

Type 1: high THC, low to no CBD

Type 2: roughly equal THC and CBD

Type 3: high CBD, low to no THC

he doesn't reference any authoritative sources for his claim that CBD increases later in flowering... this claim is just an urban myth that went around growers for years, but has slowly died a death over the last few years

the reason later harvested bud can be more sedative is due to terpenes - the smells change as the flowers mature, due to the terpenes changing, and this in turn gives you a different effect

afaik the ratio of THC to CBD remains broadly the same throughout flowering - I would be interested to see any decent evidence showing otherwise

and CBD isn't a sedative - it creates a sense of mental clarity and balance, and cuts through anxiety (anxiolytic)

the fundamental point is very simple: plants that produce CBD are plants that have the genes for CBD (low intensity light conditions can give more CBD output)

most modern strains like Skunk produce nigh on no CBD because they have had such heavy selection for potency - they are extreme Type 1 plants; a plant like Blueberry usually shows slightly more CBD, say 1.5% or less, but it is still a Type 1 plant

and for the CBD to make a meaningful impact in terms of medicinal use - you need to have plenty of it... using the oil method, or eating it etc.

smoking a Type 1 plant with stacks of THC and a little hint of CBD and thinking that this is giving you any meaningful medicinal benefits from the CBD is basically kidding yourself (poss. with the help of Paul Lawrenson)

1 person likes this

Share this post

Link to post

Thanks for clearing that up, I thought it was suspect but thought Id run it by you to be sure.

I think a type 2 plant is what I need, a balanced high.

Moroccan hash has always been one of my favourite smokes and it must be the well rounded cannabinoid profile.

Funny thing is though import sativa which is not known for significant CBD levels still gives me a good natural effect with little anxiety.

It is the Indoor commercial buds for the most part that give me an almost deppressing effect, mental confusion and burn out :soap:

Share this post

Link to post

Rinse I always recognise a lot of what you say, just like your last post and also what you say about import sativa.

The writer still might have a point about the product needing to be ripe for giving "healthy" effects. I have smoked lots of not fully ripe cannabis (like many of us that buy commercial indoor and grow northern outdoor) and recognise what he says. If I think about it, any agricultural product needs to be ripe to be right to consume and an unripe apple gives you stomach ache..

Maybe smoking a fully ripe (which may or may not be subjective)strong hybrid will give me way less negative side effects than the same hybrid that was harvested when it stopped putting on weight.

Mriko wrote something in a similar discussion some time ago in the icmag ultimate sativa thread although it's more about the importance of curing, but similar.

Quote Mriko: I'm not sure that smoking landraces is a guarantee against the side-effects you mention. Some african pot are definitely not for the faint hearted.

Still, this makes me remember about things i heard from several people while travelling in Kashmir, Himachal or North West Pakistan.

Everywhere I have heard people telling me that smoking weed ( or too fresh hash) is not good for the brain, nor the heart. really not good.

I have noticed several time that smoking uncured pot would produce unwanted effects, like anxiety for instance, or physical discomfort.

My theory about that, is that cannabis produces compounds which are unwanted, because of these side effects they can produce. And the only way to get rid of these, is to give the stuff enough time, for the right chemical reaction to get on, and get rid of these nasty things.

hash-producing cultures know their stuff and give it time enough for a good curing. About ganja, it is oftenly sun-dried, or anyway, quickly dried, in rather hot temps, and this, plus all the time it takes to reach the consumer market helps to get rid of the unwanted stuff as well.

The problem is that pot & hash chemistry is simply a white spot.

1 person likes this

Share this post

Link to post
Sign in to follow this  
Followers 0