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namkha

THC and CBD in drug cannabis strains

60 posts in this topic
:spliff: You have clearly travelled much more than I have you lucky so and so! Envious? No, just a gentle shade of green ;)

hey - if it's any consolation, I live and look like a tramp - I'm told I smell alright though

I reckon for people who can't face reading the whole paper, it's worth reading the conclusion

Small and Cronquist (1976) assumed that the sativa and indica taxa diverged primarily as a result of human selection for fiber and/or seed production on the one hand and for high THC production on the other. However, the present investigation does not support this hypothesis. The high frequency of BT in the feral biotype of C. indica suggests that this allele may have been present at high frequency in the C. indica gene pool prior to domestication. Human selection of plants carrying two copies of the BT allele appears only to be of appreciable significance in the domestication of the NLD biotype. Human selection may have resulted in an increase in the quantitative levels of cannabinoids produced by the WLD biotype, but the average amount of CBD + THC produced by the NLD biotype did not significantly differ from the hemp and feral biotypes of C. indica. In fact, the average amount of THC + CBD produced by the NLD accessions was not significantly greater than the average amount of these two cannabinoids produced by the hemp accessions of C. sativa. Small and Beckstead (1973b) also reported comparable levels of total cannabinoids in their "psychotomimetic" and "non-psychotomimetic" strains. Plants with enhanced levels of THCV were uncommon in most drug accessions, except those from southern Africa and an accession from Afghanistan. This suggests that humans may have selected against this trait in cultivated drug strains.

In contrast with the NLD biotype, the WLD biotype did not have a significantly higher frequency of BT than the hemp and feral biotypes of C. indica. This may be explained by the different products obtained from the two drug biotypes of C. indica. NLD strains are usually cultivated for the production of marijuana (pistillate inflorescences), and it is the product of a single plant that is utilized. WLD strains are traditionally cultivated for the production of hashish (detached glandular trichomes), which is the combined product of many plants. A marijuana plant with two CD alleles (chemotype III) would be ineffectual for its intended use, whereas hashish made from a population of chemotype I, II, and III individuals typically contains more THC than CBD and depending on the proportions of the different chemotypes is more or less psychoactive (Ek et al., 1972 ; Clarke, 1998 ). Thus, human selection is expected to favor chemotype I plants as seed sources for marijuana cultivation, whereas the chemotypes of individual plants cultivated for hashish production are usually unknown to the cultivator (Clarke and Watson, 2002 ).

The presence of allele BT in the C. sativa gene pool suggests that introgression from C. indica might have played a role in the evolution of C. sativa. Wind-blown pollen may have contributed to allele migration between the two gene pools (Cabezudo et al., 1997 ). Relatively high BT frequencies (range 0.38–0.55) were detected in seven hemp accessions from Turkey, Spain, Italy, former Yugoslavia, and southern Russia, which are assignable to the southern eco-geographical group of C. sativa (Davidyan, 1972 ). Additional allozyme markers and morphological traits typical of C. indica were also observed in the southern group of C. sativa (Hillig, 2004 , in press). Cannabis indica may have been introduced into Asia Minor for the purpose of hashish production and hybridized with C. sativa. Davidian (1972) cited evidence that Cannabis was introduced into Europe by both a northern and a southern route. Introgressed stock may have spread into new areas through trade or human migration (Heiser, 1973 ).

The patterns of cannabinoid variation provide evidence of progenitor-derivative relationships. The low frequency of BT and the low levels of propyl cannabinoids in accessions assigned to C. ruderalis suggest that this putative taxon could be the progenitor of C. sativa, but not of C. indica. The feral biotype of C. sativa may be comprised of "escaped" populations of cultivated C. sativa that have merged with naturalized populations of C. ruderalis (Vavilov, 1926 ). The wide range of cannabinoid variation within feral accessions of C. indica suggests that this biotype could be the progenitor of the cultivated biotypes of C. indica. The high incidence of plants in this taxon with enhanced levels of propyl cannabinoids suggests that it is not the progenitor of C. sativa, in which plants with enhanced levels of propyl cannabinoids are much less common. It is unlikely that the feral biotype of C. indica represents an escape of NLD strains from cultivation because the NLD biotype is lacking in cannabinoid variation. The high frequency of BT in the hemp biotype of C. indica suggests the possibility that one or both drug biotypes could have been secondarily derived from this taxon's gene pool. More feral and cultivated populations of C. indica and C. sativa will have to be studied to further resolve these issues.

This study of cannabinoid variation supports a two-species concept for Cannabis. A taxonomic revision that applies valid scientific names to the biotypes of C. indica recognized herein is supported by the chemotaxonomic data.

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heh, can someone summerize that into stupid for me?

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lol

Blimey namkha - what is that all about? What is BT? What is "psychotomimetic"? And "Allele"??

I think I get a little of what he's saying, though. Its all fascinans, even tremens, yet remaining a mysterium. A holy plant, indeed, borne upon the Ruach Adonai from one continent to another, a sounding of the Logos in the psyche of men, every hit a regeneration of the soul, a baptism in the Divine Pneuma.

Oooh, I love dirty talk!

:bad:

:rofl: I think my aftershave balm maybe pychoactive :woot:

And I'm sure you smell just lovely M8!

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Maybe we can get Booj in to translate? Or at least explain what an allele is for stoners.

Here's an example of an allele - "An example is the gene for blossom colour in many species of flower — a single gene controls the colour of the petals, but there may be several different versions (or alleles) of the gene. One version might result in red petals, while another might result in white petals. The resulting colour of an individual flower will depend on which two alleles it possesses for the gene and how the two interact."

The alleles we're interested in are Bt which is for producing THC and Bd which is for CBD. These come in pairs either Bt Bt (THC strain) Bd Bd CBD strain) or Bt Bd mix of both.

Logos = word of God? Ruach Adonai = ?

The first paragraph says that man didn't have the affect on cannabinoids he thinks he did, wild and feral strains have just as much variation in the alleles. I think, it says more than that but that's what I remember. Will have another look at the rest later.

Cheers for the posts Namkha.

Edited by Dr Benways Assistant

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Ruach Adonai = ?

Breath/Spirit of God.

It was just my way of trying to exemplify the dangers of in-house techno-sppeak when addressing those whose discipline is different. I find Scientists are often like theologians, very clever but struggling to make sense to the common man.

Technical vocabulary is essential for those in the know, but a real obstacle to comprehension for those who are not.

So an Allele is a gene? As in, here is a gene that controls say smell. One version yields a fruit smell, another a hashy smell. These variations = "Alleles" of the smell gene?

Still puzzled by "psychotomimetic", though. Going to have to look that one up!

Edit2Add:

Got it! "psychotomimetic" means something that mimics psychosis. That is: something that gets you high.

I think :yahoo:

:blub:

Yup, great info namkha. Ta muchly for it.

Edited by Arnold Layne

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You got psychomimetic yeah. An allele is one of a pair of alleles that make up a gene (other organisms can have more). The different combinations of alleles accounts for the differences we see. I think, pretty sure that's right.

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This aint right - I'm learning Science!! :D

:D

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haha funny stuff lol

yeah, I'm not claiming I've entirely got my head round that Hillig paper - someone somewhere has a list of the 200 or so vars. he tested, which would make things a lot clearer

if I'm following it right, I would also like to know exactly what he is suggesting the original C. indica could have been, and whereabouts the genepool might have been centred - what the closest thing is to it growing now... feral/jungli stands around Tajikistan somewhere or what?

also, the psychoactive southern Eurasian C. sativa thing also makes stuff a bit confusing

anyway Arnold I wouldn't be so sure I smell that great --- prob. a bit better than the Ruach Adoni, but then could anyone say for certain when was the last time Yahwe brushed his teeth?

Hairy Om and all that,

Namkha

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:spliff:

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Real Seed Co varieties likely to produce plants with significant CBD content

Mazar-i-Sharif

Sheberghan

Parvati

Malana

all the above are from northern hashish/charas producing regions

also:

Golden Triangle Akka

a ganja strain from Lao with Yunnanese origins - part of the Chinese indica genepool, likely to contain CBD

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@Namkha

Have you detemined the Cannabinoid profile of the strains above with TLC for identification, if not how sure are you that the strains above do contain CBD in medicinal quantity (>2%). :huh:

Peace

El Manito

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hey El Manito --- no, none of these have been analyzed --- hence why I'm trying to be careful with the language I'm using i.e. "likely to" --- going on the basis of the Hillig paper that is quite a strong "likely to" --- but no, I can repeat again for emphasis, none of our strains have been analyzed scientifically for cannabinoid profile --- it's something that we intend to do asap, but have not yet

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@Namkha

If you need help with that.Just let me know! :D

Peace

El Manito

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Well, I dunno. Why change it all around, after all these years? For me, its always bee easy to grasp: Indica = Hash type plants, broad leaflet, squat and skunky to the smell, stoney body buzz. Sativa = equatorial plants, thin leaf blades, lanky and tall, racey and cerebral head rush, sometimes very psychadelic. I just cant see why we should change all this aroud. For years we've known what we mean by Indica and Sativa. We none of us grow for rope, so what is going on here?

Sorry namkha, don't mean to derail the thread. It just puzzles the heck out of me why we should all now change our understanding of things. I just can't call some finest Nigerian or Congo "Indica", because to me, quite simply, it is not. It is "Sativa".

:unsure

i read a book from the 80's and they said the same thing about sativas for hemp and indicas for drugs. i agree that us growers and them scientists might use different descriptions but i just don't think of thin leaf, long flowering plants as indicas.....just sounds like a generalisation to me!

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I have hit 3 of my kullu girls with bd/bd pollen to isolate possible bd chemotypes. Will pollinate a fourth one as well as one mazar later. So far 3 have tested positive for thc, but they may be cbd producers too. My method of testing is smoking the leaves which imo is quite accurate. when I bump into a bd/bd plant I'll know because it won't get me high at all. I also have a bd/bt cross I can use but it's easier to go with the cbd only strain.

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