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Search the Community: Showing results for tags 'idiots in charge'.
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Worth a read, taken from the British medical journal.... psychosis, adversity, trauma, meta-analysis, abuse, neglect Topic: child psychotic disorders wounds and injuries bullying death of parent Issue Section: Research article Introduction Adverse childhood events including trauma is a common experience worldwide, with some estimates suggesting that about a third of the general population may be affected.1 Evidence suggests that its effects in adulthood may include a range of negative social outcomes, including higher criminality,2 a lower educational level3 and lower general health and well-being. Adverse childhood events have also been related to a greater risk of psychiatric disorder1,4,5 and, especially given its high prevalence, it is likely that it is an important determinant of mental ill-health.6 A growing number of methodologically sound studies have examined child maltreatment (eg, sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional/psychological abuse and neglect), peer victimization (eg, bullying), and experiences of parental loss and separation as risk factors for psychosis and schizophrenia. Nevertheless, the association between adverse childhood events and psychosis has been a topic of enduring controversy. Only narrative reviews have so far attempted to synthesize these findings, with inconsistent conclusions.7–9 Therefore, a systematic quantitative synthesis of the existing data is required. The present study presents a quantitative review and meta-analysis of the available empirical literature, examining the magnitude and consistency of the effects of different, widely-examined types of adversity and trauma observed in: (i) prospective cohort studies, (ii) large population-based cross-sectional studies, and (iii) case-control studies. Methods Search Strategy We followed the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines (see supplementary table S1).10 Search terms regarding exposure to adversity were chosen based on the most widely studied types of traumatic experiences in the psychosis literature and represented overall exposure, physical, emotional and sexual abuse, physical and emotional neglect, bullying, and parental death. A systematic database search from 1906 up to 2011 was performed on PsychINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science using the following search themes: (“child abuse”; “physical abuse”; “sexual abuse”; “psychological abuse”; “emotional abuse”; neglect*; trauma*; advers*; maltreat*; bully*; bullied; victim*; “expressed emotion”; “communication deviance”; “parental loss”; separate*; discrimination) combined with psychosis-related search terms (ie, psychosis; psychoti*; schizo*; hallucinat*; delusion*; paranoi*) using the Boolean operator “and.” Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were used to further expand the results of the database search, to identify all relevant studies (table 1and supplementary table S2). The present analysis focused exclusively on childhood trauma (defined as sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional/psychological abuse, neglect, parental death, and bullying). Other psychosocial adversities included in the original search (parental communication deviance, expressed emotion and discrimination) were not eligible for the present analysis.