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Dinafem Seeds Strain Guide


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  • Posts

    • somelad
      Could you not keep hovering them off the plant ? 
    • hilbilly hifi
      I've got some spider mites at present too, I've a mate who's big into this alkaline dieting and has a kangen water machine so gonna try using the 3.5 and misting the underside of leaves with it, see how how that goes
    • bongme
      Hi   Peak pot? Thick haze dulls hype around cannabis startups   The hype around cannabis startups in recent years intoxicated many investors. But poor balance sheets and plummeting share prices has made the comedown hard to stomach. Sabrina Kessler reports from New York.     Those who invested in cannabis stocks in recent years must have felt like lucky gold prospectors. Some saw their portfolios gain several thousand percent, especially those who invested early. In 2013, if you had put around 1,000 Canadian dollars ($759, €682) into the then relatively unknown penny stock Canopy Growth, you would be $2.2 million richer today. Many analysts were certain that something big was about to happen. Intoxicated by marijuana, some have predicted the market will grow to $200 billion over the next decade. Sales of cannabis products would then be higher than the entire soft drinks market, US investment house Cowen Inc. predicted in July, even though cannabis is still banned in many countries. Little remains of the sudden but temporary cannabis boom, however. By October, it became clear the hemp bubble had burst with quite a bang. The market has lost at least $35 billion in value since March and one firm, Aurora Cannabis, has been hit especially hard. The Canadian producer's shares have plummeted 60% over the past few months. Last year's gains, where some stocks rose 400% in a month, are now just distant memories.     Brutal and fast' transition   The latest quarterly figures for some cannabis firms illustrate how badly the sector is suffering. In November, Canopy Growth, the world's largest hemp producer, once again failed to meet expectations in its fiscal second quarter. Some Wall Street analysts called the loss of nearly 375 million Canadian dollars "startling." Its competitors, Tilray and MedMen, are fairing a little better, but not much. The two firms lost $50 and $25 million respectively over the past three months. The latter was forced to lay off a fifth of its workforce. "The last industry chapter was defined by growth at all costs," MedMen boss Adam Bierman told Bloomberg. "Now we're transitioning out of that chapter, and that transition is harsh and quick." The euphoria of cannabis fans has been overshadowed above all by issues around approval. As the plant is still predominantly treated as an illegal drug, its potential remains limited in several territories. Only a fifth of all American states, for example, allow the use of cannabis as a leisure activity — for more than just medical purposes. Most importantly, the US East Coast, including New York, New Jersey and Connecticut, is at a crossroads. In those three states, laws allowing the nonmedical consumption of hemp have so far been rejected and industry experts don't think anything will change soon.           Producers' high inventories "The entire sector is under a cloud," said one analyst who is very familiar with the cannabis market. Keith Stroup founded the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) in 1970, a non-profit organization that campaigns for the legalization of cannabis. Nobody really knows if and when US federal law will be updated to reflect legislation passed by the most progressive states, he told CNN last year. "Only when 20 separate states have fully legalized the use of marijuana will we have enough power to convince the [Federal] government," the lawyer added. Analysts have also raised concerns about high inventory levels among hemp startups. The marijuana market is already completely saturated, especially in the US, but also Canada. Only 10% of the cannabis produced has been sold there so far, the Canadian government says. Almost 400 tons of hemp remains unused. In the US, the situation is more troubling. The state of Oregon alone currently has 450 tons of weed.       High prices aid black market High taxes are not supporting the sale of legal cannabis. Some states charge rates of 45%. Many consumers cannot afford or do not want to pay those exhorbitant amounts, so a thriving black market remains. "Why would someone spend $20 on marijuana when you can get the same on the street for $2?" said Alan Valdes, senior partner at investment bank Silverbear Capital. He bought into the cannabis market eight years ago and is involved in a number of companies, but now believes that the legal market will only recover once taxes are lowered and legalization is ubiquitous. Marijuana producers, meanwhile, are trying to speed up the process. Industry lobbyists spent nearly $4 million in the first nine months of this year alone to try to convince the US government to cut taxes. "We've invested a lot of resources to push Congress to make significant changes during this legislative period," Steve Fox, one of the largest cannabis advocates and strategic advisor to the Cannabis Trade Federation, told the Financial Times.       First industry successes   A first early success came in September when the US House of Representatives passed the Secure and Fair Enforcement (SAFE) Banking Act by a large majority. Until now, banks have risked prosecution by doing business with cannabis companies. The easing of the rules briefly spurred the prices of hemp suppliers only for shares to plummet again a few days later. The industry, led by the most valuable hemp group, Canopy Growth, now wants to diversify in order to survive. Together with the Canadian rapper Drake, the firm wants to create a "wellness company," that makes products that aid the consumption of cannabis. Cannabis sweets will also be produced in an old factory belonging to the manufacturer of Hershey's chocolate. Marijuana drinks are also planned. Canopy Growth has a major advantage: One of its largest shareholders is beverage giant Constellation Brands. The firm is America's largest alcohol supplier and the largest wine company in the world. Constellation Chief Financial Officer David Klein is to take the reins at Canopy Growth next year as the firm's new CEO. Investor Valdes believes it will take a few months before the market rebounds. He predicts a return to growth after the US election next year — provided Donald Trump wins a second term as president. He believes Trump is undecided because cannabis remains a sensitive issue. "Still, Trump is a business man," says Valdes. "If he can put taxes on cannabis, he will."     https://www.dw.com/en/peak-pot-thick-haze-dulls-hype-around-cannabis-startups/a-51661806   Bongme  
    • bongme
      hi   The global cannabinoid pharmaceutical industry   Cannabinoids are of growing interest in the pharmaceutical industry. Mark Tucker explains how this class of compounds is viewed across the world and why regulations surrounding them hinder their progress, yet remain necessary.     Cannabinoids present many opportunities as a therapeutic, with researchers revealing numerous potential uses including the treatment of epilepsy and pain disorders. Despite this, their position in the pharmaceutical industry remains unclear with seemingly contradictory regulations. European Pharmaceutical Review’s Victoria Rees spoke with Mark Tucker, CEO of TTS Pharma, to discover more about current global regulations surrounding cannabinoids.
      Cannabinoids in North America   Tucker explained that in North America, cannabinoids “from a pharmaceutical perspective, are a complete mess.” He remarked on the confusing status of cannabinoids; despite significant pre-clinical research by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are fundamentally still illegal at the federal level, whilst at some state levels have been legalised. According to Tucker, this makes it extremely difficult to hire competent researchers to build a business or development programme around a pharmaceutical pipeline. Also, the prospect of transporting cannabinoids is challenging in the US, as drivers may be able to leave some states but not enter others, hence moving people, products or ingredients across state lines is wrought with problems.   US authorities, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), have recently issued several warning letters to various companies making unverified cannabidiol (CBD) claims about their products and it appears the market will become more tightly regulated t (compared to Canada) with defined boundaries of use for pharmaceutical claims. However, Tucker noted that using synthetic materials in R&D pipelines is one way to evade the complications of US regulations, as they are not controlled in the same way. At the other end of the North American spectrum, said Tucker, is Canada. Having legalised cannabis, the country has been able to forge ahead with developing therapeutic pipelines for cannabinoids relatively freely.   However, Tucker questioned the effect of allowing access to cannabinoids on this liberalised basis. At present, drug-drug interactions with cannabinoids are evident and, along with long-term build-up in adipose tissues, have not been thoroughly studied. Tucker suggests that in five to 10 years, when there is an abundance of data on cannabinoids as a biologically active ingredient , the long-term effects will be revealed. “If you suddenly lift the curtain and allow free and totally unrestricted access to these compounds without knowing how it interacts or what the impacts are, you could be putting patients at significant risk,” he said.   The size of the US Life Science investment community is substantially greater than in other parts of the world and although there are many opportunities to develop cannabinoids in North America, there is also a range of practical and regulatory complications that could limit the speed of scientific progress in the US.   European regulations Despite local nuances in Europe, Tucker said, there are “fairly well-defined regulations,” for cannabinoids throughout the EU. He suggests that European rules are superior to ones in the US due to a longer history of working with hemp and flax, where industrial use of these products has occurred for centuries. Given that European regulations are more defined and advanced, the opportunity for R&D and clinical teams to gain access to cannabinoid compounds is far easier. Therefore, Tucker says, Europe ought to be an attractive option for US investors seeking to accelerate product development. The number of well-established and active universities compared to the US and Canada is another reason that investors and research teams may want to choose Europe as a location to develop cannabinoid therapies.     The rest of the world From a global perspective, Tucker said that there are some countries that view cannabinoids as a big commercial opportunity, such as South Africa, Lesotho and Colombia, attempting to duplicate Canada’s approach. Conversely, other countries are biding their time and waiting to see how Europe and the US develop their cannabinoid priorities. Furthermore, some countries do not differentiate between cannabis and the components of cannabis, often due to less sophisticated laws or for cultural reasons.   Tucker explained that if a company intends to market a CBD cosmetic or oil free from CBN and THC in countries like the Philippines or Thailand, the law would treat the product in the same way as a medicine containing cannabis, defined as a controlled substance despite the lack of psychoactive ingredients.  This means that in places such as Japan, it is very difficult to get cannabinoids into a clinical programme, due to this “catch-all” definition. However, Tucker emphasised that ultimately, when trying to develop new pharmaceutical products, centres of excellence are the first port of call for R&D projects. As Europe has some of the best universities in the world, it is the most appealing option for investment in the current regulatory climate.
      Medical cannabis versus cannabinoids For the UK, Tucker made a distinction between ‘medical cannabis’ and ‘pharmaceutical cannabinoids’. In the UK, medical cannabis is a term that defines an unlicensed product that can be prescribed on a ‘Named Patient Basis’. This “Specials” law allows doctors to prescribe medical cannabis for compassionate or patient-specific reasons that are not accessible via a licensed product elsewhere. Once a product has completed its clinical trials and review, the ability to use this channel to market ceases and the prescribed product is preferred.   The rescheduling of medical cannabis in November 2018 was not a change in law, said Tucker, but a reclassification of cannabis within the law. Despite this, it remains difficult for patients to access medical cannabis. One reason the number of prescriptions for medical cannabis is minimal is due to the relatively small number of epilepsy patients, but also the liability of doctors. Medical cannabis falls under the “Specials” framework, explained Tucker, and so physicians take personal liability for the use of the product. This is because many products intended for the medical cannabis market have not completed the independent review process normally found in pharmaceutical product development. Solutions suggested by Tucker to improve patient access and mitigate risks to individual doctors could include extensive education to familiarise them with the benefits and risks they are being asked to prescribe for as well as a separate professional indemnity insurance policy.     Manufacturing and processing Tucker pointed out that the largest issue from a manufacturing and processing perspective is that companies must be held more accountable than retailers due to their higher position in the supply chain. As the quality and type of cannabinoids must be tightly controlled, there is a legal obligation on the retailer to source from the right supplier if patient safety is to be protected. Given the many illegal cannabinoid products of questionable quality or origin coming into the UK, Tucker believes that the various competent authorities need more collaboration. The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), Food Standards Agency (FSA) and Trading Standards (TS) could all coordinate more effectively, he said. This lack of enforcement is one reason that big pharma are unlikely to become involved in the cannabinoid manufacturing process at this time. Although investment in R&D pipelines will likely remain high, the same cannot be said for investment in the supply chain which needs serious attention. Tucker believes that there is “huge opportunity” for businesses to become the “next generation” of pharmaceutical companies. However, the right products, technologies and skill sets are required to ensure success in the industry.     Conclusion Tucker summarised that the clinical and business opportunities presented by cannabinoids are “absolutely enormous.” Despite this, he emphasised that safety should not be compromised and stringent research is still needed to understand the risks and benefits of the ever widening range of cannabinoid APIs. Therefore, although pre-clinical findings have demonstrated that cannabinoids could make effective medicines, evidence-based research must be undertaken before progress can be made. “Only when this has been completed will we know whether the liberal approaches advocated by so many are the correct way forward or were a premature reaction to unprecedented market forces,” Tucker concluded.   https://www.europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com/article/108047/the-global-cannabinoid-pharmaceutical-industry/   Bongme